ICRISET2017:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. The ground supported tanks are firmly attached with ground and tank walls are subjected to hydrostatic as well as hydrodynamic pressure due to seismic forces. Base of the tank is subjected to weight of water and pressure of soil. Top of the tanks may be covered and is designed by using IS 3370:2009 Part (I, II) [4] and IS 1893:2007 (part-2) draft code[3] is used for the seismic analysis of the tank. This paper gives idea behind the design of liquid retaining structure (rectangular ground supported water tank) using working stress method. This paper includes the seismic analysis and design of the tank. The values are obtained with the help of spreadsheet program. Analysis of ground supported water tank has been carried out and relationship between tank capacity with moment capacity and reinforcement area, base shear with impulsive height and overturning moment with convective height is derived.
Abstract. The aim of this study is to investigate an novel mode of transportation from Sarkhej Circle Ahmedabad to Pathika Gandhinagar i.e. arterial road and how this system will be viable to four basic criteria: Technically, Economically, safety and Ecofriendly. This study gives modern concepts of a single rail serving as a track for passenger or freight vehicles, gives information about land use and public transportation planning, speed and movement. Monorail vehicles have
benefited from modern transit technology.
The purpose of this Study is to investigate the viability of monorail as a new urban transit option along a corridor under study of section Sarkhej circle to Gandhinagar. The study is to determine that ―Monorail‖ a fixed guideway technology known ―Automated Guideway Transit‖ be a sustainable transport system which provide mobility and accessibility to all urban residents in a safe and environment friendly mode of transport. One alternative with the development of modern public transport system is monorail. A monorail as public transport very helpful for people in their daily activities also reduces the use of private vehicles and to reduce environmental pollution i.e. ecofriendly.
Abstract. The seismic behavior of multi-storied building supported on Friction pendulum system (FPS) during impact with adjacent structure is examined. One lateral degree of freedom is considered at each floor, base mass and slider. Adjacent structure (i.e. retaining walls or entry bridges) is modeled as an impact element in form of spring and dashpot. The impact response of FPS bearing is studied under 60 records consisting of service level, design basis and maximum credible earthquakes. Newmark’s step by step iteration method is used to solve the differential equations of motion for the isolated system. The impact response of isolated building is studied under the variation of important system parameters such as size of gap and stiffness of impact element. To reduce the influence of impact a viscous damper is employed between the isolated building and adjacent structure. It is concluded that during impact with adjacent structure the superstructure acceleration and base shear increases while bearing displacement decreases. The employment of viscous damper shows considerable reduction in bearing displacements, base shear and impact force during DBE and MCE events. Further, the effects of impact are found critical if the superstructure is flexible and greater stiffness of impact element. The top floor acceleration increases with the isolation gap up to certain limit and again reduces with the increase in isolation gap.
Keywords - Adjacent Structure; isolation; Sliding bearing; Viscous Damper; Gap effect; Floor acceleration; Impact
Abstract. A detailed study has been conducted for understanding the structural behaviour of a beam with Hybrid profile consisting of a concrete arch tied with steel reinforcement. The compression region generated due to flexural loading is converted into an arch which is connected by providing reinforcement at the bottom. The structural performance of this type of beam is not known yet owing to its complex shape and novelty. The main goal of the study is to examine the static behaviour of this beam under flexure and different support conditions comprising of simple support with and without horizontal restraint. Finite element analysis for the developed beam is conducted using standard FEA package. The results indicate that the strain at the level of steel in arch beam reduces by 31.8% with horizontal restraint whereas without horizontal restraint, there is an increase of strain by 50% as compared to beam having rectangular section with similar loading condition and flexural rigidity. The self-weight of the developed beam was reduced by 45% compared to conventional rectangular section. This study shows that the performance of the developed beam improves significantly if a suitable support conditions are provided.
Abstract. Population in India is increasing rapidly and reached approximately 127 crores with average growth of 1.6% every year. Traffic Congestion is one of the major problems that India is facing and it has a massive impact on the quality of air, time of travelling, trade and cost. It has been noted that the government are trying their best in order to come up to this problem by creating structures such as Tunnels, Subways, Flyovers and Bridges. But unfortunately it fails as does not match up with the increase of population and due to less amount of land available for the construction. In this report there is a study on the construction of the buildings and structures with a new technology of constructing under the water. It has been noted that the underwater buildings exist since year 1960 but no one was aware of it. The underwater construction of the buildings can be advantageous to the people and the environment if proper techniques are used and if people get success in achieving such structures. If such technology is adapted everything can be built underwater such as buildings, houses, shopping complex, museums, entertainment hub, restaurants, hotels, sports stadiums etc. This can lead to a progressive and a luxurious life to the people and they can even enjoy their holidays at such places. Encouragement of underwater building is provided by the glamorous view beneath the water of fishes, sea beds, different creatures and coral reefs. This paper discuss about the materials which should be used for the construction of underwater buildings, ways of building and special requirements, the possibility of such constructions, advantages and disadvantages of underwater buildings, the impact of such buildings on environment, effect on the social life and transportation.
Abstract. In today’s world, it is very difficult to manage the complex construction project with traditional project management system. BIM (Building Information Modelling) is one of most useful recent development in Construction Industry which helps in visualizing virtual building model to find future defects in design, to reduce cost, to increase productivity and quality etc. Big projects are required to carry out work during night also. So, it becomes vital to provide sufficient Lighting considering economics as well. With the use of BIM, the saving potential in lighting cost can be found out. In this research paper one case study of lighting analysis of residential project is taken which shows the benefits in energy cost savings.
Abstract. Now a days due to increase in the terrorist activities, it becomes necessary to study the response of building when subjected to blast loading. The front wall of the building has direct effect of blast load. In the present study typical reinforced concrete wall panel was consider for dynamic analysis under blast load scenario. The dynamic analysis was carried out using Single Degree of Freedom Blast Effects Design Spreadsheets (SBEDS). The parametric study was carried out to study the effect of compressive strength of concrete, percentage reinforcement, thickness of wall and unsupported length of wall on response of building under blast load scenario. The results were presented in form of displacement time history and pressure impulse diagrams. The results indicate that the displacement of RC wall panel decrease as the increase in the thickness of wall panel, grade of concrete and percentage of reinforcement, but with the increase in unsupported length of RC wall panel, the displacement increases. The mode of failure of RC wall panel under blast load scenario was predicted using pressure impulse diagram. It was observed that as the increase in unsupported length of shear wall, the shear wall was prone to fail in flexural failure mode in impulsive as well as quasi-static region. The results also indicate that as the increase in thickness of wall, percentage reinforcement and compressive strength of concrete, the shear wall was prone to fail in direct shear mode in impulsive region and flexural mode in quasi-static region.
Abstract. It has been found that the forces in the members of frame structures considering soil-structure
interaction, differs than conventional method of analysis. Analysis considering soil-structure interaction is time-consuming process; hence, if the relation between two methods established, then by using conventional method, realistic results can be obtained. In the present work, effort has been made to study the impact of soil-structure interaction on the progressive collapse assessment of reinforced concrete frame structure (building). It is clear that the differential settlement of the foundation changes the load transfer system of the super structure. Differential settlement depends on the properties of the soil below foundation and the stiffness of the super structure. The objective of this study is to quantify the change in the reaction at the foundation level due to soil structure interaction. To achieve this target, the Winkler approach is used. In this model, soil below foundation is modelled as idealized springs. To study the effect of failure of load carrying elements i.e. columns on the entire structure; 15 storey moment resistant RC buildings is considered. The building is modelled and analyzed for progressive collapse using the structural analysis and design software SAP2000. Nonlinear static analysis is performed to understand the progressive collapse phenomena. The nonlinear static analysis is found to be the most efficient method for progressive collapse assessment of the reinforced concrete structure with consideration of soil effect. General Service Administration (GSA 2003) guideline is used for loading and procedure to assess the potential towards progressive collapse of structure.
Abstract. This study investigates the direct displacement based design (DDBD) and convectional force based design (FBD) approach for 8 storey RC frame building in DDBD methodology the displacement profile is calculated and the given MDOF is converted to equivalent single degree of freedom system. After calculating the effective period, secant stiffness, and viscous damping of the equivalent structure, the base shear is obtained, based on which the design and detailing process can be carried out. The designed frames as per DDBD and FBD approach are then analyzed using nonlinear pushover analysis to obtain the capacity curves and response reduction factor. Results of the analysis and comparison of ‘R’ factor indicate the efficiency of the DDBD approach for RC frame buildings
Abstract. In the production of Self Compacting concrete (SCC), the use of quaternary blend of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM’s) has not found enough applications. For this purpose, an effort has been done to present a mix design for M60 grade and M80 grade SCC with quaternary blending of fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume (SF) in accordance with EFNARC guidelines. Findings: In this study, cement has been replaced with SCM’s from 30% to 50%. Fresh properties of concrete were tested for slump flow, T50 test and U box. The hardened properties of concrete were tested for compressive strength and durability. The tests were performed for 7, 28, 56 and 91 days. The results indicate that the use of quaternary blend has improved the workability, compressive strength and durability properties of specimens than the control specimen. Application: The primary contribution is to fill the congested
reinforcement and increase the durability and life span of the structure.
Abstract. Earthquake design plays major role in designing of any structure. The base shear is developed during an earthquake in a structure. The base shear is calculated by using the codes IS 1893:2002 (Part–1). The study includes the calculations of storey shear, storey drift and storey displacement of G+14 building which is situated in zone-5 with different irregularities. Irregularities are crucial in studying the seismic behavior of building. The irregularities considered are mass irregularity and vertical geometric irregularity. The mass irregularity has first floor without masonry wall and rest of floor with infill masonry wall i.e. soft storey and vertical geometric irregularity has uneven geometry in vertical position & shape of building. In very severe earthquake zone, structure fail due to high lateral loads in this project lateral loads are considered in both direction (EQX & EQY). The modelling and calculations of building are done using ETABS.
Abstract. RC staging water tanks are essential facilities that are expected to remain operational even after sever earthquakes. The seismic design codes/standards of most countries incorporate the nonlinear response of a structure through a ‘seismic response factor’ (R). This factor permits a designer to use a linear elastic force based design while accounting for nonlinear behavior and deformation limits. In this paper orderly approach is deputed to determine the seismic response factor of elevated water tank having different soil flexibility. For nonlinear static pushover analysis finite element method is used. The capacity curve of each model is generated and the ‘R’ factors are obtained such wise. The impact of soil flexibility on seismic response factor of RC framing tank is evaluated. ‘R’ factors are determined for existing tanks at two performance level.
Abstract. With the rapid growth in building construction and urbanisation, buildings are getting taller and bigger than ever. In India majority of structures are constructed with the help of concrete resulting into very heavy structures. Heavy loads are one of the limitations for construction of tall buildings. If somehow structures are made lighter, cost of the foundation can also be lowered down. Conventional concrete is one of the main reason in increasing the weight of the buildings. Light weight concrete can be very much effective in reducing the overall weight of the building. In conventional concrete, larger volume comprises of coarse aggregates. In this study, attempt has been made to replace conventional coarse aggregates with Styrofoam which is a very light weight foam. Concrete with different aggregate replacement percentage was tested. The results show very encouraging results for the compressive strength and density.
Abstract. Now a days, in densely populated areas it is desired to have a taller structures which are light in weight and also very flexible. But in real cases the weight is higher thus they are more vulnerable to the environmental load and may lead to collapse of the structure and generate the serviceability problems. Different types of approaches are available to minimize the response of the structure, from the different approaches concept of Tuned Liquid Damper (TLD) is a newer one to reduce the response of the structure. In the TLD, liquid is filled in the tank which reduces the response of the structure using action of liquid sloshing. These TLD dampers are economical as well as less serviceability cost effective passive response reducers, which are being used in the structure having less stiffness and having a low value of damping of structure. In this study, considering Tuned mass damper (TMD) analogy the response of the Single Degree of Freedom (SDOF) system with nonlinear behavior of Tuned sloshing water damper (TSWD was investigated. Four different earthquake ground motion time history like Imperial valley (1940), Loma prieta (1989), Northridge (1995), Kobe (1994) has been used to investigate the behavior of SDOF structure with water sloshing damper. A numerical study was carried out with different important parameters such as mass ratio, and frequency ratio the results showed that there was a reduction in the acceleration response of the structure up to 33% by using different mass ratio. It is also observed that 4% mass ratio is most effective for the acceleration response reduction of the structure.
Abstract. Conventional seismic analysis of structure incorporates only elastic response of the structure. To understand nonlinear response of the structure, Performance Based Design (PBD) approach is widely used. PBD includes Pushover analysis i.e. nonlinear static analysis, which shows the post-elastic behaviour of the structure. IS 1893-2002 incorporates the nonlinear response of a structure considering response reduction factor (R) so that a linear elastic force based approach can be used for design. The response modification factor plays a key role in the seismic design of new buildings. However, the Indian code does not provide information on the components of R factor. The values assigned to this factor is based on engineering judgment. The study includes the calculation of value R based on different components as per ATC-19 and compares values of R for Special Moment resisting frame (SMRF) and Ordinary Moment resisting frames (OMRF) for two different seismic zones. An improvement in the reliability of modern earthquake-resistant buildings will require the systematic evaluation of the building response characteristics, which mostly affects the values assigned to the factor.
Abstract. Urban air pollution is rapidly increasing in Indian cities. It affects the health and mental status of urban dwellers. In the present study, air pollutants data were collected for a year 2016 at 4 locations in Delhi from Central Pollution Control Board. The present study incorporates the analysis of the ambient air in Delhi city using Air Quality Index (AQI). An AQI is proposed for the city of Delhi, India for easy data interpretation and understanding of air quality. The air pollutants analyzed are Sulfur dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and Particulate matter (PM2.5). The locations selected are Dwarka, R.K Puram, Panjabi Baugh, and Anand Vihar. The AQI were calculated using IND-AQI procedure. It has been observed that AQI’s values of all four locations falls under very poor category. The overall AQI was found under very poor and sever categories. It was found that AQI values were very high during winter season and low during monsoon season. The AQI of PM2.5 was found exceeding the limits for all the months in each location. Thus, it is observed that PM2.5 is critical pollutant at these four locations in Delhi.
Abstract. Researchers and engineers certainly prefer to use nonlinear static methods over complicated nonlinear time-history methods. However, in nonlinear static procedure both predetermined target displacement and force distribution pattern are based on a false assumption that the structural behavior and its responses are dominated by the fundamental vibration modes. Therefore, over the past decades, there have been a great number of studies on considering higher mode contribution in nonlinear static results. The Displacement-based Adaptive Pushover Analysis (DAP) is one of the performance assessments tool for improving the accuracy of the obtained results of nonlinear static analysis in estimating the seismic demands of the structures. In this paper, 5 storey L- shaped RC frame is analyzed for seismic Zone IV and designed as per provisions of IS codes. Performance evaluation is carried out by nonlinear static analysis as well as adaptive pushover analysis and results are compared.
Abstract. This paper represents test results of impact resistance of geopolymer concrete (GPC) containing recycled plastic aggregates (RPA). Natural fine aggregates of 10mm size were partially replaced by RPA in varying proportions. Impact resistant offered by GPC was obtained by performing drop hammer test conforming to suggestions by ACI 544.2R-89. The test results revealed excellent improvement of impact resistance and energy absorption at 10% replacement of natural aggregates by RPA. The experimental evaluation of GPC modified by RPA, demonstrated potential for novel usage of waste plastic with GPC towards the development of sustainable construction material.
Abstract. WMA refers to the procedure of asphalt creation at temperature lower than hot mix asphalt by the addition of additives. An endeavor is rolled out to assess the improvements in designing properties of the VG30 with and without warm additive. Likewise Marshall Mix configuration is done on VG30 for DBM layer with and without warm blend added substance evothermJ1 in reasonable measurements of 0.3%, 0.4% and 0.5% at lower temperature according to the arrangements of codal practice, with no compromise with quality.
The impression of tests proposes the capable inclination to go for using warm mix additives into the standard of clearing things so that the temperature is cut down to 120°C with no compromise in quality.
Abstract. In India, increase in population coupled with heavy laden loads of vehicles conveying heavier stresses concentrates especially on roads running in clayey soil zones which create significant problems for pavements and hence need to be stabilized. Insecure soils make huge issues for asphalts and henceforth should be settled. In this study, at first the examination of normal soil is done to assess the physical and engineering properties as indicated by Indian Standard (1498 – 1970) by coordinating exploration focus tests and to evaluate the adjustment in properties by the utilizing sea shell powder as a part of dose of 12%, 15% and 18% as stabilizers to be used as a part of the asphalt configuration for the economy. Understanding the progressions in sub- grade quality, the correct outline systems of the asphalt layers based upon the sub grade quality can be worked out utilizing IRC code and comparative saving cost per km.
Abstract. Government construction sector is having major issue in Item Rate Contract – Unbalance bidding. Projects bid by Contractors at very low rate like Building projects 15-30% below than SOR rates. Road projects having much lower rates compare to Building projects. Government SOR rates are higher than the actual rate is not the reason behind that. Its contractor’s strategy to make bid amount as low as possible by making tender Unbalance. Unbalanced tender affects the healthy competition between contractors as well almost removes the genuine bidders. If the strategy of contractors turned positive than they may earned fat profit, which puts burden on the government. On the other hand, they may suffer from loss. Avoidance of loss may affect the quality of the work and enhances corruption. To avoid the loss of government, bad quality of work and corruption this topic is chosen to find the alternative to mitigate the unbalance tender.
Abstract. Trip Attraction is vital for planning of transportation facilities. It is utmost important for the planner to consider the influence of various development. The basic purpose of trip generation is to determine the number of trips that are generated or attracted to different zones. This paper seeks to build a suitable trip generation and attraction models for the selected malls of Vadodara city. Pilot survey has been done in order to determine trip attraction towards each mall. The analysis for the same is done through TransCAD software.
Abstract. In the view of the expeditious growth of infrastructure around the globe, there is an acute shortage of building materials and also a very stern problem of the disposal of the remaining and continuously generating waste. The demand of natural sand in the construction industry also has magnificently increased resulting in the rapid depletion of the river beds which are the natural sources of sand. Acute shortage of good quality of sand has resulted in to considerable increase in its price ultimately affecting the construction cost. Thus there is a severe need to identify a suitable substitute of sand which is eco-friendly and can be used effectively in construction practices mainly in concrete which requires sand as fine aggregates. An attempt is required to investigate use of some alternative materials to save precious natural resources. The current study focuses on determining suitability of using quarry dust, which is a waste product from quarry, as fine aggregates in traditional concrete. During the tenure of the study, some physical and engineering properties of quarry dust and sand were determined and compared. The compressive strength of concrete was determined after replacing sand with quarry dust in various ratios. The results of the study showed encouraging results for replacement of 50% of sand with quarry dust.
Abstract. This paper concentrates on the research center examination of the attributes and performance of warm mix asphalt containing compound added substance. Viscosity grade 30 bitumen was utilized for this study and the WMA added substances utilized as a part of this review were Evotherm and Sasobit. Consistency tests demonstrated the utilized warm mix additives are within permissible limit. Information got from indirect tensile test, tensile strength ratio test, static and dynamic creep test demonstrated that the blends containing warm mix asphalt added substances performed better in contrast with hot mix asphalt. Warm mix asphalt samples indicated lesser aggregate lasting strain gathering in contrast with HMA specimens, Sasobit altered warm blend black-top specimens demonstrated the minimum deformation.
Abstract. This research study was mainly focus on performing dynamic cone penetration tests according to ASTM D691 - 03 with various relative density on different gradation (poorly graded and well graded) of sand. Sand samples were collected from different region of Gujarat viz. Khanpur, Sevaliya, Ahmedabad. Well graded sand samples were prepared by mixing in different proportions of sand samples collected from above locations. Dynamic cone penetration tests were carried out in Plexiglas tank (60 cm × 60 cm × 75 cm) on three different poorly graded and three different well graded sand at different relative density of 30, 50, 65, 75 %. Relative density of sand samples were determined according to IS : 2720 (Part 14) – 1983. Dry sand has been filled in tank up to 70 cm height of tank. Tamping was done with rammer (30 cm × 30 cm × 1 cm) of 9.5 kg weight to achieve desired density. Desired depth of penetration is 60 cm. Dynamic cone penetration tests were performed according to ASTM D6951-03.
Abstract. Castellated girders having straight or curved profile are extensively used in structural application due to its aesthetics, versatility, economy and ease of use. The present paper is focused on Finite Element Analysis of curved castellated steel beam. The prime objective is to study the impact of opening and rise on behaviour of these curved steel beams. A parametric study has been conducted on arched castellated girder for various ratio of depth to opening for variable degree of curvature proportional to the span of the girder. The main focus of study in this paper is the temperature variation that exists between building interior and external environment. The FEA study reveals from the results that mid span deflection of beam increases with increase in size of opening. It is also observed that there is a sudden reduction of stresses when the span to rise ratio is reduced from 7 to 6.
Abstract. Slurry infiltrated fibrous concrete (SIFCON) is a new and unique type of high performance concrete invented by Lankard in 1979, containing high percentage of fiber about 6% to 20% by volume. SIFCON possesses high strength as well as large ductility and has excellent potential for structural application. The matrix in SIFCON has no coarse aggregate but high cementitious content. The aim of study is to evaluate the performance of SIFCON mortar with lower fiber percentage and to minimize the fine aggregate usage by replacing it with industrial waste i.e. steel slag. Thereby, it also helps in effective disposal of industrial waste and helps in mitigating environmental pollution. The main objective of this study is to determine the effect of partial replacement of sand with steel slag on the mechanical properties of SIFCON mortar. The experimental program was carried out with 2%, 3% and 4% of fiber content by volume combined with replacement of sand by steel slag in proportion of 10% and 20% by weight. For this purpose, compressive strength, flexural strength, split tension and impact strength of SIFCON specimens were tested after 7 and 28 days of curing, yielding positive results.
Abstract. Urbanization and industrialization has caused a drastic revolution all over the world. Intersections are crucial to street’s performance. They control a speed, safety, cost, and efficiency, making right turns the key design factor in intersections improvements and operations. In Anand city of Gujarat state, due to increasing population growth and increased traffic need Capacity Evaluation selected intersections. Borsad Chowkdi-which is highly congestible, and similarly Ganesh Chowkdi and Janta Chowkdi with similar traffic conditions has been selected. Using two methods e.g.IRC-65 Method and HCM-2000 method Capacity of two Roundabouts and One un-signalized intersection has been evaluated. IRC-65(1976) method based on the geometrics of Rounabouts and give the Capacity of entire Intersections. HCM-2000 method, Design parameters are Critical Gap and Follow up Time based on Gap Acceptance Method, give the each leg Capacity.
Abstract. Cementitious concrete has great practical difficulties in achieving high compressive strength and durability of high performance structures. But it becomes a challenge to increase the compressive strength and durability of particular cementitious composite and also maintaining basic desirable properties of concrete. This paper addresses these problems by the addition of nano-materials. In this study, an attempt is made to understand the effect of Anatase Nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2), on Conventional Concrete (CC) of M20 grade with various proportions 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%, 1.5% in relation with the weight of cement. The Workability, Strength parameters at various proportions of Anatase Nano Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) are tested at different durations. The results obtained are being discussed in the paper.
Abstract. During the life span of structure there may be an effect of vibration. Due to vibration there may be major or minor damage in building. Base isolation is best method to reduce the seismic response of the structure. This paper gives idea about base isolation system which can be used in multi-story building to reduce seismic response of the structure. This paper represents the initialize study of dynamic parameter like effective damping for four earthquake time history. In this paper the optimum effective damping has been found out under the effect of Loma Prieta earthquake time history. The parametric study has been conducted to evaluate the effect on maximum displacement, maximum acceleration, maximum base shear in bare frame and frame with isolator.
Abstract. In India, infrastructure is given prior importance and it has been vision to make India fully developed up till 2020.But still at present the average compressive strength of concrete is in range 20.0–30.0 N/mm2. Thus, it is challenging to produce high strength concrete and the one of the major reason for this is presence of air voids. At present to reduce these voids many compacting machines like vibrators are used in filed. But, this leads to high noise pollution and irritation the person working on site. Thus, to eliminate this problem related to compaction, strength and noise, A new concrete called Self-Compacting Concrete [SCC] is used. It reduces the voids as it flows under its own weight. The strength and durability of SCC is much higher compared to conventional concrete. It also helps in achieving high quality of surface finishes and becomes sustainable as it saves the energy. The limitation with such concrete is that cement content is high and results in increase of cost. So, our research aims to produce a self-compacting concrete and compare conventional concrete and self-compacting concrete for economical.
Abstract. Harmony search Algorithm (HSA) is mostly preferred for solving optimization
problems and gives optimum solution of the problems. . It is based on improvisation of harmony in music process where musicians improvise their instruments’ pitch by searching for a aesthetically pleasant harmony. As the musicians in improvisation process try to find the best harmony in terms of aesthetics, the decision variables in optimization process try to be the best solution in terms of objective function. In the present work, the harmony search method is studied with an attempt to use it to solve various structural optimization problems. Harmony search can be more effective than some of the optimization available right now like genetic algorithms, particle swarm algorithm, ant colony algorithm, gravity search algorithm etc. The programming language used in this work is Visual Basic-macro excel. The programs for harmony search algorithm is developed in macro and their reliability is checked by verifying it with various mathematical optimization problems.
Abstract. The Gulf of Cambay/Khambhat, (GoC), the study area is highly influenced by the tidal currents other than geological and structural set up of the region. In Gulf of Cambay, a large tidal range during high and low tides give rise to strong tidal currents and develops a mechanism of sediment transportation. Interestingly the inverted funnel shape of GoC has large contribution for the sediment deposition in this region. During high tide the tide currents move into the Gulf and encroaches the river mouth whereas during low tide, they move out. This regular phenomena since long period on geological time scale has modified the geomorphological features in this region.
Along the major estuaries of Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and Tapi, the sediment budget is controlled by seasonal variation and also by tide and ebb phenomena.
Using remote sensing images of different time scale and topographical map one can study the changes in geomorphological features. Satellite remote sensing technique has proven to be the paramount tool for studying surficial land features, especially for the inaccessible area or where time variable studies and regional scale studies are carried out. The well-developed natural or artificial features near to coastline viz salt pan, marshy land, mudflats, rocky cliffs, alluvial cliffs, wet land, mangroves, erosional and depositional features are well studied with the help of remote sensing techniques.
Abstract. Aviation is presently become the quickest developing ventures and additionally transportation modes in the world has reduced space for flying with passage of time having an impact on pollution level. The paper enlightens the concept of Green Transport and sustainable aviation system and benefits of it. Secondly study about the present scenario of Green aviation technology in world as well as in INDIA. Further study about the Vadodara International Airport, a first Green International Airport of Gujarat, and country`s second Green airport after Chandigarh`s terminal.
Abstract. Estimation of Net Irrigation Requirement (NIR) of crops is essential for agricultural planning, irrigation scheduling, regional water balance studies and optimal allocation of land and water resources in a canal command area. In the present study, NIR estimation of different crops of Limbasi Canal command area, Gujarat, India is carried out in the deterministic and stochastic regimes for nineteen years of available data. In the deterministic regime, the estimated average NIR of 19 years for kharif crops paddy & vegetables was 229.8 & 92.9mm ; rabi crops sorghum, tobacco, wheat & vegetables was 355.5, 391, 427.2 & 407.1mm and hot weather crops paddy, pearl millet & vegetables was 863.9, 600.6 & 754.7 mm respectively. In the stochastic regime, NIR of different crops was predicted at Probability of Exceedance (PE) levels of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.35 and 0.40 using 19 years of NIR. MATLAB was used for prediction of NIR. The goodness of fit was tested by Kolmogorov – Smirnov test and normal distribution was found as the best fit.
Abstract. A lot of studies have been performed to explore the use and application of conforming elements in meshing of two and three-dimensional structures. Here, a combination of 5 nodes on X axis and 3 nodes on Y axis has been considered. Hence, the element used here is a 12 nodded rectangular nonconforming element, which can be termed as Quadri-Quintic nonconforming element. The development of a computer program to study the behavior of Quadri-Quintic nonconforming element and its application in meshing of deep beams has been targeted. The study may able to show that the proposed element gives results with higher accuracy and with faster convergence.
Abstract. This paper reviews traffic congestion problem and its solutions. BRTS become
attractive and effective solution which is adopted in many countries. The aim of the present paper is to describe effect of BRTS which is the sustainable solution for public transport services in urban area. Various study carried out to developed guidelines for
implementation of BRTS for different countries. Each country having different BRTS features as well as its impact also. The impact can be measure by micro-simulation before implementation of BRTS. Simulation gives realistic result under real world application.
Abstract. Concrete being most widely used construction material across the world need to be sustainable. This study aims at feasibility study the effects of addition of PU rubber in geopolymer concrete for its strength. PU rubber is formed by polymerization process. A long and low crosslinking chain gives stretchy polymer and a short and high crosslinking chain gives hard polymer. High amounts of crosslinking give tough or rigid polymers. Geopolymer concrete includes an alternate material i.e Fly ash in replacement of cement, as a binding material . Fly ash reacts with the alkaline activated solution i.e mixture of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) and Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3) forming a gel which binds the aggregates thoroughly. Cubes of size 150mm x 150mm x 150mm were casted and oven curing was done for 24 hour at 100°C. Compression test was performed in hardened state, for different proportions of replacing the aggregate with PU rubber i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%. Compressive strength test was performed at 7 & 28 days. Results were obtained and compared. Optimum mixes are Fly ash Coarse aggregate, Fine aggregate, Solution of NaOH and Na2SiO3 combined. Decrease in strength was observed at 7 & 28 days.
Abstract. At present in Indian Construction, large number of construction projects is delayed by many reasons one of them is ‘improper planning and scheduling’ and ‘resources uncertainty’, which are more concerned for every project manager. There are many scheduling techniques but resource based technique is only one i.e. Critical chain project management (CCPM). This paper contains review of 35 research papers, thesis and articles on CCPM. Main aim of paper is to explore the opportunities to apply CCPM by means of literature review to minimize uncertainty and variation in project activity duration. Paper also describe theories behind CCPM network and procedure of preparing CCPM network.
Abstract. This Paper presents estimation of suspended sediment concentration in lined canal. The suspended sediment concentration measurement is been carried out for different discharges including minimum and maximum discharges at one section of Kakrapar Left Bank Main Canal. The bridge method has been used for the collection of suspended sediment water sample. For this purpose, a section selected at Tarsada Highway Bridge which is across the main canal. The total numbers of four; in-site observations were made; many samples of water sediment mixture were taken from the canal section during each observation, these samples were filtered through filter paper and the average suspended sediment concentration recorded. The suspended sediment transport rate was calculated from the observed sediment concentration. The suspended sediment water samples were collected using Punjab bottle sampler. Also for each observation, the water velocity was measured laterally at different point on cross- section by using current meter and the average velocity was computed. The graphs of suspended sediment concentration for different discharges were plotted.
Abstract. Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a novel material due to its high strength and enhanced durability properties. These properties have made it choicest material for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. The mix design of RPC is such that it affects the heat of hydration in concrete due to its reduced cementitious content. The advantage of this concrete or so to say mortar hinders other properties like permeability, creep and shrinkage. To one limit the material becomes more brittle thereby reducing the possibility of deformation before failure. The present work is an effort to evaluate the shear and impact behaviour of RPC due to varying proportions of fibre content in the mix. The results showed marked improvement of strength as well as the crack behaviour of the cubes when subjected to shear loading with increase in the load for first cracking.
Abstract. In the present work, Finite element analysis is done by using FEM based software ANSYS (version 15) on simply supported rectangular plate with uniformly distributed loading condition. The results obtained for two different material properties of steel and aluminium are compared by using static structural and modal analysis.The analysis result of deformation, stress and frequency at each mode on simply supported rectangular plate obtained by ANSYS are compared for two material properties. And these results are compared with regression analysis for accuracy.
Abstract. Nanotechnologies are a quickly extending territory of research in highway infrastructure. This is due to self-cleaning, self-vibration damping, structural health monitoring and self-healing properties of it. This paper focuses on the advancement of important nanotechnology and its effect on roadway designing practice is presented for widening vision and inspiring the creativity of highway engineering
keeping in viewpoint safety, durability, financial aspects and maintainability of the transportation framework of India is considered.
Abstract. Road traffic noise is likely the most thorough and inescapable kind of noise pollution and is in charge of negative effects that are destructive to nature and the nature of group health of mankind. Residential area/towns close by roads are additionally casualty of the issue, extraordinarily have the high danger of hearing loss due to the traffic noise exposure. The Objectives of the present review were to concentrate the attributes of hearing loss and survey the predominance of hearing loss because of traffic on 52 people working 8 to 12 hours close to the periphery of NH 8E going through Una Town by performing audiometric test. Consequence of the present study demonstrates that hearing impairment are common in people persistently exposed to traffic noise. The effect of high-level traffic noise leads to temporary threshold shift and if any person is exposed to such noisy environment may suffer from permanent threshold shift after long period of time.
Abstract. In Municipal solid waste disposal is a burning issue around the world. Increase of the population and change in lifestyle are finding their way out to manage for a fight quantum increase in MSW. Due to least priority of the governing body in developing country like India, it is much tougher to have a sustainable management system for MSW. Town in India is characterizing as per population. This paper gives detail studied with segregation and sustainable management of waste composition was suggested for MSW in the medium scale town of the south Gujarat region in India. Route study of the MSW transportation is also done so as optimum route can be suggested with the quantity of waste in minimum cost.
Abstract. Hydrochemical study was carried out in Mahi Right Bank Command Area in Central Gujarat, India to understand suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation purpose. Groundwater quality data for shallow wells were collected from State water data centre and Gujarat Engineering Research Institute. Na-Cl, Na-HCO3-Cl, Ca- Na-HCO3-Cl, Ca- Na-Cl are dominant groundwater type. Quality assessment for groundwater in the study area was carried out for irrigation purpose on basis of salinity index, SAR, % Sodium, RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate), PI (Permeability Index), MH (Magnesium Hazard), and USDA (United States Department of Agricultural) Classification. It is observed that except few locations most of the groundwater samples were not suitable for irrigation based on MH. The groundwater quality assessment carried out will help the irrigation engineers and the other stake holders in planning the conjunctive water use for agricultural activities in the command area.
Abstract. In this work the strength characteristics of steel fibre reinforced concrete with varying percentages of fibres is found and hence arrived at optimum percentage of steel fibres. M60 grade concrete as per particle packing method was designed with cement, sand and coarse aggregates (10mm and 20mm) which yielded a proportion of 1:1.79:1.11:2.08 with a w/c ratio of 0.30. The steel fibres were added at the rate of 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0%, 1.25%, 1.50%, 1.75%, and 2.0% by volume fraction. Based on the compressive strength and tensile strength it is concluded that the optimum percentage of steel fiber to be added in the concrete mix is 1% by volume fraction.
Abstract. Land Suitability analysis is important for preparation of Development Plan. The planning requires undertaking study of topography, water resources, land utilization, and development needs. The RS & GIS techniques offers suitable analytical opportunity to study variables required for selection of sites for various uses. This paper presents process adopted for the preparation of development plan of Anand Vidyanagar Karamsad Urban Development Authority (AVKUDA), regarding the land suitability analysis. The location and types of land to be protected were identified using RS Data and GIS analysis. Keywords— AVKUDA; Land Suitability; Planning; RS & GIS
Abstract. This paper includes the study of behavior of a single degree of freedom system with viscous dampers subjected to harmonic excitation. In this study one story building is considered. The mathematical model of building subjected to harmonic excitation is obtained and its solution is obtained by state space method. The viscous damper is considered for the building with different percentage of damping. The response of building under resonance and non-resonance condition is obtained and it is observed that it can be significantly reduced by installing viscous damper. It is further observed that the linear viscous damper is more effective in reducing the responses for resonance case.
Abstract. Waste in the construction industry has been the theme of several research projects around the world in recent years. Researchers implement different methods to reduce the amount of waste in the construction industry. In the construction industry, contractors only consider physical waste which leads the project to cost overruns. i.e. material waste. Construction industry is also affected by time overrun. Impact of time overrun on the construction projects is considerably high and requires special attention in addition to physical waste. In the present study, construction waste is categorized in mainly of two types: value added waste and non-value added waste. This categorization includes both-material waste as well as time waste, which are main causes of occurrence of waste. A case study was also carried out at a residential building project in Ahmedabad, Gujarat to get the idea about the percentage of waste occurs in a construction project.
Abstract. This paper explores the comparative study of building performances at its performance points with two different response reduction factors. RCC Building with Bare Frame, RCC Building with Shear Wall and RCC Building with Stiffness Asymmetry, these three types of buildings are used for obtaining better objective of the study. Pushover Analysis is performed in SAP2000 to get performance of the building.
Abstract. This paper presents an experimental study on the properties of concrete containing ceramic wastes and rice husk ash. The ceramic industry inevitably generates wastes, irrespective of the improvements introduced in manufacturing processes, in the ceramic industry, about 15% -30% production goes as waste. In India during the milling of paddy about 78 % of weight is received as rice, broken rice and bran, the rest 22 % of the weight of paddy is received as husk, the 25 % of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, which is known as rice husk ash (RHA). These wastes causes problem in present day society, requiring a suitable form of management in order to achieve sustainable development. In this research study the (OPC) cement has been replaced by ceramic waste powder & RHA accordingly in the range of 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% & 0%, 5%, 10%, 12% respectively. Ceramic aggregate has been replaced by ceramic waste aggregate accordingly in the range of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% by weight for M-25 grade concrete. Compressive Strength test was carried out on hardened concrete cubes after 7 and 28 days curing in water. Results show that concrete with partial cement and aggregate replacement by ceramic powder, RHA and ceramic aggregate has although minor strength loss but possesses increase in its durability performance. In current paper the analysis of various properties of ceramic aggregates, ceramic powder and RHA is carried out to validate adoptability of the same as normal aggregates and fine powder(cement) respectively. In both cases, sustainable efforts were made to reduce the quantity of material used in concrete. Reuse of this kind of waste has advantages in aspect of economic and environmental, reduction in the number of natural spaces employed as refuse dumps. Indirectly, all the above contributes to a better quality of life for citizens and to introduce the concept of sustainability in the construction sector.
Abstract. This study aims to model and study G+14 RCC building with different geometrical configurations and provision of shear wall at different location for zone IV and V. The various parameters like Lateral displacement, Storey drift, Drift ratio, Base Shear are compared for building models developed by using SAP2000 with and without shear wall. The provision of shear wall in multistoried building in zone V improved lateral load carrying capacity and also other parameters are enhanced in comparison with building in zone IV.
Abstract. India being an agrarian country, the present and future challenges of agricultural demand due to population increase can be met by technological innovations for sustainable agriculture. Indian agriculture beset with water scarcity and becomes less remunerative and uncertain. Since water being a precious resource for agriculture, every drop of water available for irrigation is significant for overall farm efficiency. Hence there is prudent and paramount need for efficient use of the available water and micro- irrigation is one such innovative technology. Economic return is very important for the adoption of any new technology. Economic return with more engineering approaches to keep water productivity more relevant in economic considerations [1]. Raising the physical productivity of water in crops without due considerations to economics will not have much relevance to small farmers in developing countries [2]. This paper assesses the current status and technologies of micro-irrigation and evaluating the future prospects of micro-irrigation adoption in India. The rationale of the paper is to appraise micro-irrigation as an innovative technology for sustainable agriculture in India and its significant impact on water productivity and land productivity.
Abstract. Castellated Beams made from steel I Sections are being extensively used in structural applications because it has high moment of inertia and high strength to weight ratio. This paper is concerned with the comparison of castellated beam with solid beam, also carried out for same loading and geometric condition. Parametric study is done by changing various parameters of castellated beam like shape of opening, welded length, ratio of depth of opening to total depth and angle of cut. By comparing castellated beam with solid beam it is concluded that solid beam required higher section.
Abstract. The present study is an attempt to detect anomalies in rainfall for lower Tapi basin due to ENSO events. Daily rainfall data have been used for the present analysis. The data have been collected from state water data centre from 1961 to 2001. With the availability of suitable data 1982, 1986, 1987, 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2009 are the El Nino years and 1988, 1998, 1999, 2007 and 2010 are the La Nina years analysed for the present study. The yearly extreme precipitation indices have been computed for frequency, intensity and duration for the base period 1981 to 2010. For the El Nino years 1997 and 2009 positive anomalies have been observed in the frequency based indices. In the years 1982, 1987, 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2009, positive anomalies have been observed for the intensity based indices. Positive anomalies results into better rainfall during El Nino events. Negative anomalies have been observed in the years 1998 and 1999 of the La Nina events for the frequency based indices and for the years 1988, 1998, 1999, 1007 and 2010 negative anomalies have been observed in the intensity based indices. The analysis of La Nina events results in a decrease in rainfall. The precipitation duration based indices have not indicated clear trend. The overall analysis showed that ENSO is not directly affecting the rainfall of the study region.
Abstract. In this paper, study is carried out to develop the shock spectra for different impulse excitation. To evaluate the effect of damping on various shock spectra, SDOF Systems have been considered. Piece-wise differential equation method is used to evaluate the response of the systems. 0%, 5%, 10% and 20% damping ratios are considered for four different pulse excitation namely - First half triangular pulse, Second half triangular pulse, Full cycle sine wave pulse, Trapezoidal pulse. Software tool is developed to generate different shock spectra using C Sharp.
Abstract. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to minimize the amount of cement used in concrete. Efforts at partial replacement have been successful and regulations are promulgated to standardize and use such successful formulations. There is now worldwide research aimed at complete replacement of cement by activating industrial materials that are rich in silica and alumina with alkaline solution. The present study aims at complete elimination of cement through the development of a geopolymer concrete containing fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), activated by sodium based alkaline activators. The effect of replacing up to 50% fly ash by GGBS is also studied. The strength parameters are measured for a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution having concentrations from 2M to 12M. The samples are cured under ambient conditions. Compressive and split tensile strengths of cubes and cylinders for all mixtures were measured on the 28th day of casting. The overall data pertaining to compressive strength and chemical components along with curing temperature is compiled to achieve generalized predictable results. Comparative charts were developed in terms of temperature, quantity of NaOH and SiO2/CaO for compressive strength.
Abstract. There have been increasing efforts in recent years to minimize the amount of cement used in concrete. Efforts at partial replacement have been successful and regulations have been promulgated to standardize and use such formulations. Research aimed at complete replacement of cement by activating industrial materials that are rich in silica and alumina with alkaline solutions is still on-going all over the world. The present study was aimed at complete elimination of cement through the development of a geopolymer concrete containing the mixture of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), activated by sodium based alkaline activators. The effect of replacing up to 50% fly ash by GGBS was considered. The strength parameters were studied for a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solution having concentration 12M. The samples were cured under ambient conditions as well as in an oven at 60oC for 24 hours. Compressive and split tensile strengths of the samples were measured on 3rd, 7th, 14th, 28th, 56th and 90th days of casting. The cubes were also tested for durability parameters by ponding in NaCl and H2SO4 solution for 28 and 90 days. It was observed that replacing fly ash with 30% of GGBS gave the best results.
Abstract. In modern days many civilian structures need shielding against blast effects. Past incidences of terrorist activities have increased the awareness towards the structural design to mitigate the effect of explosion and prevention of collapse of the building. The objective primary of blast resistant design is to prevent the collapse of the structural system and to maintain structural integrity through ductile and redundant behaviour. The primary aim of present work is to analyze the RC wall having SDOF with both end fixed under blast loading using ANSYS software.
Abstract. In this study, the performance of elevated steel water tank with TFPS isolation under near fault ground motion is evaluated. Mathematical model of storage tank is distinct with four degree of freedom model includes tower structure, sloshing mass, isolation system and impulsive mass. TFPS provided at foundation level of tower structure. Performance of TFPS is compared with FPS using SAP 2000.
Abstract. Double-Layer Grid structures are three-dimensional pin-jointed structures, which are generally used for covering roofs having large span areas with the help of connectors. A Double Layer Grid structures are quite popular as the use of material can be reduced, easy to assemble and permits quicker construction. The weight of the structure depends on the member as well as connectors. The connectors contain 20-30% of total weight (by referring Lan, T.T. “Space frame structure”). In present study, two types of Connectors are used for analysis and for optimisation of structure. The aim of this study is to optimize the design and to get the effective connector. Solid connector and Hollow connector (with varying thickness) have been taken for parametric study, modelled in CREO and analysed using ANSYS 17.2. The results of stresses have been obtained under the static loads for comparison.
Abstract. Considering the present scenario, it is observed that the response of the unreinforced masonry building during the earthquake conditions have resulted into significant damages in buildings and subsequent life loss. The conventional method of masonry construction adopted so far utilizes the same construction material as in confined masonry, however the construction technique differs for both. This study has considered the analysis, design and comparison of confined masonry wall with unreinforced masonry wall. The differences in the method of construction and the performance of both, under the seismic conditions has been considered through the study on a sample building. A user friendly tool in the form of Microsoft excel worksheet is to be generated to design a confined masonry wall. The study is aimed at determining the more economic construction between the unreinforced and confined masonry.
Abstract. Cooling towers are designed to handle the heat rejected from the power plant by keeping it cool without damaging the whole structure. These are the large structures with small thickness. An attempt has been made to study the effect of blast load on cooling tower. Cooling tower has been analysed for blast load assuming fixity at base. The blast pressure is calculated using IS 4991:1968. Variable explosive distances has been taken to study the behaviour of structure. Structure is modelled and analysed in ANSYS 16.2. The effect of blast load has been analysed in terms of deflection, stresses and strain.
Abstract. The Seismic design of structure has conventionally been force based. Displacement is the major factor for the damage rather than force. The alternative procedure for seismic design, which becomes more popular, is performance based design method. Displacement is global parameter of performance based design method. Direct displacement based design method has been used for seismic design of structure. The paper attempts to design moment resisting RC-frame using Displacement based design method and Forced based design method. 15-storey building with shear wall has been taken for parametric study. The parameter like base shear and lateral load distribution are taken for the study. It is observed that base shear of RC building calculated by DDBD is less compared to FBD.
Abstract. Demand of construction of high-rise building is growing day by day in densely populated areas in India. In construction of tall building lateral load is main governing factor in design of tall structure. Tubular system is one of the common and popular systems. Framed tube and Bundled tube systems are commonly used systems in construction of high rise building. For designing these systems it requires accurate analysis. Here attempt has been made for 48 storey building structure using ETABS software in triangle tubes bundled system and square tubes bundled system.
Abstract. Every year about 1.3 trillion bricks are manufactured in, and the world of which at least 10% are made in coal fired kilns, releasing about 800 million tons of CO2 annually. Eco-friendly bricks help to reduce the emission of CO2 in environment. Another aspect is to utilize waste materials and by products such as fly-ash, rice-husk, chopped straw etc., which are cheaper and easily available. These materials should help to achieve better properties for bricks. Another aim is to reduce the shrinkage problem in present eco-friendly bricks by adding waste products and increase in the strength and serviceability of present eco-friendly bricks. In this study we utilize different materials with varying percentage to produce eco-friendly bricks with improved properties. Shrinkage of the present eco- friendly bricks was reduced by adding rice-husk (RH) and chopped-straw (CS). The highest strength of the brick was achieved.
Abstract. The sub grade is a layer of natural soil, prepared to receive the layers of pavement. The thickness of pavement depends upon the properties of sub grade. Sub grade should be strong enough to take up the stresses imposed due to loads with out shear failure and excessive deformation. Sub grade soil strength is evaluated in terms of California Bearing Ratio and is used for design of flexible pavement. It can be performed both in the laboratory and field. The CBR test is laborious and time consuming, even though use of CBR as a performance parameter is widely acknowledged. Also it is very difficult to prepare sample at desired in situ density for laboratory testing. The CBR value depends on factors like particle fines, plasticity index, maximum dry density and optimum moisture content. The fine particles have engineering defect and its CBR value is low. This paper presents the effect of fine particles on CBR value. For the laboratory investigation, specimens were fabricated at optimum moisture content and maximum dry density by heavy compaction with varying proportion of sand, silt-clay and fine gravel mixtures. The samples were soaked in water for four days to simulate highly unfavorable condition. Correlation coefficient between fine particles and laboratory CBR values are obtained. Various linear relationships between index properties and CBR of the samples are investigated using linear regression analysis. Analysis of the experimental data indicated that there exist a good correlation among the measured value and predicted value of CBR
Abstract. Steel buildings prone to lateral loads responds well if provided with SPSW. SPSW is more effective for lateral loads as they are more ductile, lighter and lesser space occupants. SPSW systems are used in high-rise buildings as retrofitting also. Now a days conventional SPSW are more preferred in steel buildings. By keeping the view in mind, an effort has been made to check the effectiveness of different patterns of SPSW. For the same, bare-frame is compared with Conventional SPSW, X–type SPSW and Diagonal SPSW. Strip modelling is used to analyse SPSW in building using ETABS software. The load considered are primary loads and earthquake load as Static coefficient method from IS 1893:2002. The maximum displacement and axial forces are compared to get effective pattern.
Abstract. Staggered Truss System (STS) is a prospective steel structure system for high-rise buildings and staggered truss framing system is one of the effective design techniques to improve the efficiency of building. In addition, cost reduction arise from reduction in steel tonnage using this framing method. The purpose of this study is to carryout comparative analysis of moment resisting system, moment resisting system with shear wall, staggered truss system and staggered truss system with shear wall. In this analysis, different time histories are used. For the analysis, these structures are modeled in SAP2000 v18 and various displacement data are achieved for different types of system. After analysis of these four models, some outcomes are observed and it is concluded that displacement in staggered truss system reduced by 28% to 76% in transverse direction compared to moment resisting system. It is observed that the reduction in displacement for STS with shear wall is 7% to 43% in longitudinal direction but in transverse direction, the reduction of displacement is almost same as STS system. As per result Staggered truss with shear wall gives 46% to 76% less displacement in longitudinal direction & 28% to 77% less displacement in transverse direction for different near fault ground motion. After analyzing all data, it seems that staggered truss system with shear wall is more efficient than moment resisting system and moment resisting system with shear wall and staggered truss system.
Abstract. Reinforced soil retaining walls have become a conventional practice for economical retaining wall construction. For stability, geosynthetic reinforcement should have ample design strength, located at specific vertical spacing in the reinforced fill. Geosynthetic reinforcement design strengths and vertical spacing are easy to attain. If there are outcrops of heavily over consolidated soils, soft r hard rocks in close vicinity to the retaining wall, the required reinforcement lengths into the reinforced fill may be difficult to achieve. In these circumstances, it becomes impossible to excavate the heavily over consolidated soil or rock. In that case, extent of reinforced fill has to be controlled to protect the wall face alignment which in turn results in short lengths of geosynthetic reinforcement.