ASC2023:Papers with Abstracts

Abstract. Jump into STEM is a Department of Energy Challenge for undergraduate and graduate college students. The challenge focuses on innovate technologies for energy resources for the future. Similar to the Solar Decathlon, there are opportunities for construction students to participate in a national level competition while providing opportunities for a variety of research pathways. The Challenge encourages a diverse team, allowing students to find research funding through existing programs at the university through non-traditional sources like the Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation program. Applicable coursework and pedagogy are discussed. Students applied a variety of construction skills during the project. Examples of research frameworks and an overview of how the project was completed are provided. The case study is a success story in interdisciplinary research across multiple education levels where the construction program does not have a graduate student program.
Abstract. Research has shown that higher education learning, a transition point to industry for most people, is always challenged in meeting the demands of the multidimensional experiences people in practice demonstrate. A greater part of construction related students lack firsthand experience and the required soft skills for industry practice. Thus, a need for a partnership between industry and academia in training students for better learning outcomes is called for. Other studies also project a 9% decline in high school graduation rate between 2020 and 2030, which calls for the need to instill the interest in construction related professions at the high school level to prevent a decline in construction related programs enrolment. The noted challenge has led to the introduction of a co-teaching platform engaging universities, community colleges and high schools, with input from industry, in support of anticipated aligned learning outcomes. This paper presents an exploratory study: a co-teaching initiative involving three instructors of record, six industry practitioners, with the integration of video conferencing technologies (i.e., Zoom Meeting and Meeting Owl Pro), and the effectiveness measured through Direct as well as Indirect Assessment methods. The results demonstrated that students across the various learning platforms were able to meet the set learning outcomes. Survey responses also indicated a good blend between instructors of record and industry practitioners, thereby laying a foundation for the need to continue and improve the co-teaching platform through the online supporting tools to enhance the competencies of young graduates.
Abstract. Project close-out activities and the transfer of information to the general contractor and owner are critical steps in meeting desired project outcomes and receiving timely final payments. This process, when not planned for, leads to delays and challenges that can harm a project's profitability and overall owner satisfaction. HVAC contractors are one of the major trades on construction job sites responsible for providing important facility operational information. If their close-out processes are not effective, they not only threaten their internal project success but can cause prolonged delays for other project stakeholders. This paper discusses a framework for project close-out for HVAC mechanical contractors. The research developed and analyzed fourteen (14) case studies documenting different companies' close-out processes. This allowed for identifying common challenges and existing workflows to determine how various companies addressed those challenges. The study resulted in a framework, represented as a process model workflow, to help HVAC mechanical contractors improve their internal close-out processes.
Abstract. This research aims to provide the shelter design called R3ER (Resilient, Equitable, Environmental, Energy efficiency, Rapid) in a modularized based-3Dprinting construction method. The R3ER entails an energy-efficient design that showed a lower EUI compared to the benchmark EUI approved by ASHRAE Standards Committee. Additionally, the provided shelter R3ER has multiple uses such as disaster relief shelter, office, and hospital which can justify the environmental justice. Therefore, the R3ER will give stakeholders such as emergency planning commissions, third-party organizations, and construction managers/engineers a resource to maximize the non-monetary and monetary benefits of use of this type of shelter in their community. As a result, the communities would not only (1) be less exposed to disaster damage or less vulnerable to disaster impacts but also (2) ensure maximum utilization of the limited resources to reach out to a larger number of people who might be facing it.
Abstract. Shared values and beliefs are inherent in a culture, which helps an organization achieve superior safety performance. The study aimed to identify the reporting and information-sharing indicators that will promote positive safety culture within construction companies, especially among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Based on the related literature on safety culture, the study adopted the Delphi technique data collection method in Ghana, the research site. After a three-round Delphi technique, the indicators that reached consensus were retained and reported in this paper. The findings revealed that 11 indicators would show how reporting and information sharing promote a positive safety culture. Reporting and sharing information underpin an informed culture essential to a learning organization. Thus, how construction SMEs handle specific indicators, such as ‘naming and shaming [the blame game], influence the timing and accuracy of reporting and sharing of information that may be vital to the safety of site operatives.
Abstract. The response of academic institutions to Covid-19 impacted faculty in numerous ways including teaching, service, and research productivity. Thus, this research seeks to determine the United States (US). Construction faculty perceptions of Covid-19 impacts to their research. This research targeted group was US academic institutions members of the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) grouped according to their Carnegie Institutional Classification. It was hypothesized that research of faculty in doctoral universities with very high research activity (R1) according to the Carnegie Classification would be more broadly impacted. To evaluate this hypothesis, a non-experimental correlational research approach was implemented using an online survey instrument to collect data. The data collected correspond to 109 construction educators within the US. The elements considered to impact faculty research in this study include: average teaching load, online learning environment (OLE) impact on research and service, factors affecting research productivity, overall institutional support and support to OLE. Based on the data analysis, it was determined that differences in the institutions’ Carnegie Classification does not have an effect on the faculty perceptions of Covid-19 impacts, as faculty from all types of classifications indicated comparable impacts on research, service and teaching.
Abstract. To operate a drone in the U.S., the federal government requires pilots to pass a standardized Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) knowledge test. The government does not require drone pilots pass a practical exam demonstrating minimum flight proficiency. However, the government, through the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), has provided a voluntary exam protocol to test flight skills. Using the NIST exam protocol, the Airborne Public Safety Association has created the only nationally recognized unmanned aircraft systems flight proficiency certification. This certification is frequently used by contractors and construction UAS courses. The literature has identified a limitation in how the exam is scored. The purpose of this study is to quantify how impactful this limitation is. The researchers conducted an experiment administering the exam to 24 licensed drone pilots. The exam was scored compensating for the scoring limitation. The study found that when the scoring limitation was accounted for, scores
were inflated by approximately 5% with inexperienced pilots. Inexperienced pilots will have the highest deviation and represent the most extreme cases. Given the relatively low 5% deviation with novice pilots, the study found that this limitation is not a significant concern and can be managed by the exam proctor.
Abstract. It is incumbent upon higher education institutions to teach students how to use emerging technologies and best practices of advanced workflows. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are rapidly expanding tools that support various industries, including construction management, civil engineering, and surveying. There are many challenges to offering a course focused on the use of an outside, hands-on tool. These challenges can be exacerbated by the online delivery method.
This paper describes the curriculum and delivery method of an online drone course taught at a large land grant institution in the southeast. The course allows students to earn their FAA Part 107 remote pilots certificate and their Airborne Public Safety Association (APSA) flight proficiency certification, and it prepares them to become a Level 1 UAS thermographer. This paper will indicate where this institution has found success and where future development is needed when offering this course online. The paper can also be a roadmap for other schools to create a similar UAS course.
Abstract. A great deal of focus has been placed by different governments on their construction industries as it is known for being a large polluter of the planet, as well as being a huge consumer of energy and emitter of carbon. The research was completed by investigating major PPP themes related to UK (namely, challenges to UK construction, operational performance of PPP projects, and drivers of PPP projects). To ensure enough participants were reached, the snowball sampling technique was used to collect data from 156 industrial professionals. Relative importance index (RII) analysis was performed to check the ranking of the factors, and to determine the significance of each factor. This analysis revealed a large significance on time and cost management issues within the challenges to UK construction section. Sustainability presented highly significant results relating to modern methods of construction like BIM as well as the use of modern schemes such as the PF2 (Private Finance 2) scheme. This was also found to be an important factor in the operational performance of PPP projects as well as resolving financial and fiscal issues within the public sector. This research can support public and private sectors to develop advanced collaborative networks to boost productivity.
Abstract. Effective communication is a critical component of project management and, as a result, an essential component of the construction business. Construction project teams present unique communication challenges with the multidisciplinary makeup of members that have different communication styles with varied levels of understanding, skills, and adaptability. Past research has been fragmented with understanding the factors that promote communication between contracting parties. This study identifies ten factors that impact communication willingness and tests the level of impact of each factor. Additionally, industry practitioners were surveyed on the factors impact on communicating with other project stakeholders. Fifty-three individuals were surveyed in the South-Central region of the United States, representing four different project stakeholders: owners, architects, project managers, and superintendents. A personal desire to succeed and communicating with skilled individuals were found to be the motivators that had the greatest impact on promoting communication willingness. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify three differences with communication willingness between the different project stakeholders.
Abstract. During the Covid-19 pandemic, plastic pollution became exacerbated by the disposal of face masks. The practical collection, processing, and application of the face mask have become a major challenge. Several studies have examined the added benefits of using face masks on asphalt pavements; however, these studies were limited to the application and have not addressed the appropriate collection process. This research aims to develop a theoretical collection process of disposable face masks originating from locations other than hospitals. The process aims to collect face masks safely and practically from residential, commercial, and educational zones. The masks would be collected twice a month and disinfected and sterilized before being transported to a shredding company for processing before being transported to an asphalt plant for use in asphalt mixtures. The developed collection method will minimize the risk of being affected by the Covid-19 virus and provide a practical procedure that can be used by waste management facilities. Additionally, the developed collection method could aid the construction industry in adopting a more environmentally friendly, sustainable, and cost- effective method of construction.
Abstract. Creating a Virtual Reality (VR) walkthrough from a 3D building information model leads to fewer mistakes and enhanced project visualization. Visualizing a 3D model in VR reveal errors not easily seen with Building Information Modeling (BIM) software. This process helps on limiting future change orders and rework, saving time and costs for both the contractor and the owner. Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) has capable of visualizing clash detection tools while walking around the model. IVR enables the user to walk around the model freely. This helps inspect any design errors and omissions and facilitates correcting them before drawings get issued for construction. The research objective is to assess the benefits of the Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) walkthrough compared to a 3D model alone. This study was conducted using the Oculus Rift S headset with hand controllers, Revit, and Enscape rendering software. The paper discusses the process used for creating VR walkthroughs through this low-cost but high-performance combination. This paper also discusses where the IVR was used to identify geometry and design mistakes and helped prepare the accurate as-built model.
Abstract. The construction industry continues to grow rapidly and faces a massive shortage of workers. The roofing industry, in particular, is projected to grow considerably with an increased demand for workers in the upcoming years. One critical component of the roofing industry is distribution. Distributors play a significant role in ensuring that materials arrive on site in a timely and affordable manner and act as a bridge between the roofing subcontractors and manufacturers. Attracting the next generation, Generation Z (Gen Z), is critical to address workforce shortages in the industry. The Gen Z population has various career preferences and characteristics that influence them in selecting a career. Gen Z looks for a defined career path within a specific industry that shows how their career can grow over time. This paper aims to develop and document a typical career path that college students from a construction program might have within the distribution sector of the roofing industry,with the help of a focus group. Additionally, the focus group discussed information regarding worker responsibilities, experience requirements, compensation, and benefits for each position. This paper documents the consensus findings from the focus group. This information and flowchart will aid educators and industry members in garnering interest in the distribution sector of the roofing industry.
Abstract. Drones are being widely deployed in construction, and the interaction between them and construction professionals is expected to increase even more in the future. However, the deployment of these aerial robots near construction professionals could be associated with additional risks affecting the safety and health of the workplace. This study explores the attentional impact of drone presence at different distances from construction professionals on the jobsite. Through a user-centered virtual reality-based experiment, construction professionals were asked to accomplish a construction task with the presence of drones while having their eye movement tracked. Results showed that the drone presence has an impact on participants’ attentional states and that these aerial robots have attracted some of the construction professionals’ attention. Participants’ attentional state was also impacted by the drone operational distance, with professionals in close proximity from the drone looking fewer at the aerial robot, and for shorter durations, as opposed to those located at a farther distance. The contributions of this study are to ensure safe human-drone interaction in construction by informing industry personnel of the potential safety impacts of drones on jobsites and assisting in the formalization of specific regulations for the use of aerial robots in the industry.
Abstract. The construction industry accounts for greater than one-tenth of the global Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Evolving sophistication and demands of clients and changes to laws and regulations profoundly impact the environment and dynamics of this enormous sector. To deal with modifications, the construction industry is bringing changes to the construction methods and practices by formalizing the project management approach using specialized methodologies. Construction professionals enroll in construction and project management certification programs to stay current with industry processes and practices. Numerous organizations, institutions, and associations offer various types of construction and project management certification. In this paper, the certification programs of Associated General Contractors of America (AGC), Associated Builders and Contractors (ABC), National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER), The Institute of Project Management, American Institute of Constructors (AIC), Construction Management Association of America (CMAA), Project Management Institute (PMI) and International Project Management Association (IPMA) are evaluated. This research provides accurate and updated information on the types of certifications, eligibility criteria, exam formats, cost, validity, and renewal process of the project and construction management certifications offered by certification bodies recognized by the construction industry in the United States.
Abstract. Utilizing drones on construction sites could put workers who are already in dangerous environments into even more risky situations. Therefore, researchers have explored the safety challenges and their countermeasures regarding drone integration into construction sites. This study proposes using a 360- degree virtual reality (360VR) training environment to educate construction professionals on the safety concerns that drones could pose and how to work safely on a drone-populated site. This study specifically focuses on the knowledge gap of how trainees’ backgrounds, such as construction experience, work experience with drones, and prior understanding of drones, could be associated with the effects of the training. This study created comprehensive pedagogical intervention content using 360VR, followed by a user-centered pre- and post-experiment. After training, participants’ knowledge levels improved by 41% on average. Furthermore, the results indicate that trainees’ construction experience and job experience with drones were not associated with their knowledge levels. Moreover, those with lower levels of understanding about drones significantly improved their knowledge scores after the training. The result shows that trainees with different knowledge about drones may be suitable for trainings with different levels of difficulty.
Abstract. The purpose of this research was to investigate the main influences on school-leavers’ decision to pursue a career path in the construction industry through either a higher-level degree or a skilled trades program in Ireland. Additionally, this study examined how the key influencers on school-leavers, such as parents, teachers and career counsellors view the construction sector. The research applied a mixed- methods research approach. A survey was conducted among 200 mainly 6th year school-leavers across four secondary schools in the Wicklow and Wexford areas in Ireland. Through a questionnaire data was collected about their reasons for deciding on a higher-level degree compared to a skilled trades program. The influencers’ perspective on the construction sector was assessed through semi-structured interviews, enabling triangulation of the data. The findings indicate that most school-leavers were given more information about higher education options than apprenticeship. Furthermore, the research suggests that most school-leavers believed that higher education is considered a superior pathway over joining skilled trades courses. School-leavers see apprenticeships as a lesser achievement than higher education. There is a need to address negative stereotyping associated with apprenticeships and to inform students in secondary school early about the alternative study pathways and career opportunities.
Abstract. Architectural, engineering, and construction firms design the built environment in a continuing effort to appeal to the home-buying public. Firms’ decisions include the exterior finishes that the public see and judge. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether material design elements from the built environment would commonly be perceived to have a political affiliation. Additionally, the study investigated if political consumerism could be seen in respondents’ perceptions of the materials when aligned with (or in conflict with) their party. Architectural renderings of the same home with different exteriors (i.e., brick, stucco, or painted wood siding) were presented as experimental stimuli. The study collected data from 584 nationwide respondents. Interestingly, both major parties of Republicans and Democrats identified wood siding as representing their own political party while identifying an alternate exterior finish (usually brick) as representing their opposing party. The political consumerism behavior of reward was uncovered in respondents placing a higher perceived value on the exterior finish with which they identified.
Abstract. Existing risk management practices in Downstream Oil and Gas Industry (DOGI) are ineffective in reducing the frequency of incidents and delays in the turnaround projects. The underestimation of safety risk impacts during the turnaround projects is the root cause of shocking accidents and delays in the DOGI. The paper focuses on analyzing the critical Safety Risk Factors (SRFs) and the potential Risk Adaptation Measures (RAMs) associated with turnaround projects. Current literature was reviewed to explore the complexity of risk management approaches and design a questionnaire survey based on the literature findings. The survey was conducted via online, and the collected data based on 72 samples were analyzed to identify the critical SRFs and the effective RAMs using the relative risk index method. Interviews were conducted with experts to evaluate the survey findings. It is found that SRFs such as fire and explosion hazards are the most critical, followed by slips, trips, and falls; confined space; motor and vehicle accidents and injuries. The study reveals that increasing safety awareness and empowering to key staffs may be an effective way of mitigating the safety risks. The paper concludes that there is strategic difference in risk assessment practices and adopted technology in safety risk mitigations between underdeveloped and developed countries.
Abstract. Despite a total population under 600,000, Wyoming’s jobs increased by 5,672 positions in 2018. Notably, more than 50% of this job growth was in the construction industry. Until 2019, there were no formal secondary construction education and training programs able to supply the necessary workforce to meet industry needs. Since 2019, Wyoming has been fortunate to build strong construction programs within their high school Career and Technical Education curricula and Community College programs. With the support of the Associated General Contractors of Wyoming, educators at each level have partnered with the University of Wyoming to pilot several collaborative efforts to increase curricular consistency and credit articulation that can culminate in a bachelor’s degree in Construction Management. A unique and major focus of the connected secondary to post-secondary construction education program is that it affords students the ability to exit and rejoin the educational pathway while concurrently gaining construction industry experience. This paper describes two programs piloted across educational levels in Wyoming. The use of the Zoom Meetings and Owl Pro technologies worked well to cultivate educational synergy between the classrooms located at each of the institutions across the state. Thus, the findings are helpful to those interested in connecting secondary and pos
Abstract. This study analyzes credit-hours of mathematics and science subjects in the American Council for Construction Education (ACCE) accredited bachelor’s degree programs in Construction Management (CM). As per the current ACCE standards, a graduate of a CM program is required to complete 3 and 6 Semester Hours (SHs) in Mathematics and Science, respectively. An analysis of the credit-hours in the 75 accredited programs shows that more than 90 percent of the programs require a student to complete more hours in these subject than the required 9 SHs. The analysis also shows that 72 percent of the programs require 6 SHs or more in Mathematics and 79 percent of the programs require 8 SHs or more in Science. A strong presence of mathematics and science subjects in the CM programs indicates that the programs are striving to equip the graduates with skills in data analysis, model building, and research and innovation. Moreover, these subjects equip the graduates for a continuous academic inquiry and prepare them to understand and appreciate the natural world. The results indicate that the CM programs make a strong case for science, technology, engineering, and math designation.
Abstract. Energy efficiency has become one of the preferred features for homebuyers. Today, energy-efficient houses are valued more on the housing market since there is a significant emphasis on environmental consciousness. Energy-efficient homes are rated as superior homes due to their role in reducing utility bills. Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, and Federal Housing Administration (FHA) have developed policies and guidelines to help appraisers assess the energy-efficient features of a home. However, the appraisers do not generally add value of energy-efficient measures due to difficulties in estimating the benefits. The home appraisers will welcome a tool that could help them estimate the benefits of an energy efficiency measure and will use it in their appraisals. The tool developed in this study will consider the most common home energy efficiency measures (EEMs) in four categories: space conditioning, hot water, enclosures, and lighting/appliances, and estimate the initial cost of adding them to a home as well as their annual energy savings. Spreadsheets are developed for a small size home in Gainesville, Florida that allow the home appraisers find the present worth of an added energy efficient measure based on the remaining life of the home, the energy inflation rate, and the discount rate.
Abstract. Project delays are a significant challenge that can significantly impact construction projects and have been a problem affecting construction projects for more than a century. 3D Printing can reduce the probability of project delays due to its ability to work in inaccessible areas, its greater product customization, minimized waste production, and its ability to print intricate designs. Therefore, given the capabilities of 3D Printing, the research aims to identify the advantages and limitations of 3D Printing Technology. These main causes are delaying the projects and finding a way to mitigate the project delays using 3D Printing Technology. The study used a survey methodology, the literature Review for the recently published papers on 3D Printing and Project Delays. As per this study, the main reason for the project delays are the inappropriate project schedule and labor issues, whereas 3D Printing helps finish the intricate designs, reduces human errors and greater customization makes this technology stand on top. Despite the benefits, this study also identified the barriers to implementing this technology on the construction site: high initial investment and unavailability of standard regulations and codes.
Abstract. This study aims to compare the environmental impact of precast and 3D concrete printing (3DCP) techniques with a pedestrian bridge case study. A detailed cradle-to-site life cycle assessment has been performed from the standpoint of material, construction, and installation stages. The results showed that the concrete used in 3DCP has a higher negative environmental impact compared to the precast method due to the higher percentage of cement used in printable concrete. However, since C3DP used less material than the precast technique, there is no significant difference in the environmental impact of the total concrete used between the 3DCP and precast bridges. In addition, due to the use of reinforcement and formwork in the precast technique, the environmental impact of the total materials used in the precast bridge was more adverse than the 3DCP bridge. Notably, due to using electricity for printing, the negative environmental impact of the construction process in 3DCP was significantly higher than in the precast technique. Finally, the total carbon dioxide equivalent emitted during the construction of the 3DCP bridge was 80% of the precast bridge.
Abstract. Traditional examination methods are not always sufficient for measuring a student’s knowledge, skills, or abilities on a given subject. These traditional exams also create sufficient anxiety for the student to warrant the exploration of alternative assessment methods. Open-resource examination was explored in this longitudinal study that spans a six-year timeline in a construction finance course. The use of an online application to design, administer, and grade was considered in this study. This was accompanied with a survey of the students. Exam results as well as survey results are presented and discussed in this paper. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the results over the timeline of the study. Advantages to students include reduced exam anxiety, immediate results, and control of exam location and environment. Advantages to instructors include automated grading as well as statistical analysis of individual exam questions and aggregate performance. Additionally,both instructor and student gain valuable class-time to treat content and context of the subject. Limitations of open- resources exams are also considered. The results make a compelling case for a broader implementation of open- resource, online exams.
Abstract. The construction industry is facing workforce shortages and a low retention rate for new professionals. Embracing diversity has been identified as a critical factor that can remediate this situation. Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) are recognized as an important source to increase the diversity of minority representation to foster a next generation of diverse professionals. However, construction lacks an understanding of what MSIs actively take part of the current educational community across the U.S. This study investigates MSIs within the context of construction disciplines in the U.S. as an important part of the construction educational community. An exploratory analysis of the existing databases that contain MSI denominated institutions under the listings by the U.S. Department of Education was performed to identify the proportions of MSIs that offer construction programs, the types of programs being offered, the degree levels of the educational programs, and the participation of MSI within the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) and the American Council for Construction Education (ACCE) academic communities. Based on the results from the MSI exploration in construction, a discussion is provided to stress the importance of connecting with these educational institutions to increase the number of new, diverse professionals into construction careers.
Abstract. Drones continue to support the growth of the construction industry; however, activities that use drones for K-12 education are still minimal and exploratory. Particularly, no studies have explored the use of drone technologies to attract students towards construction disciplines. The contribution of this study centers on better understanding how drones can be relied upon to create interest and motivation in K-12 students by showcasing the construction domain to the next generation of the workforce. This study investigated the attitudes and interests towards construction of eleven middle school students enrolled in a Summer Youth Camp at the Michigan Technological University. During this study, a construction-centric drone education activity was designed and implemented during a 3-hour long session within a large lab space. Students completed an adapted version of the S-STEM Survey before and after participating in the activity. Although differences in the survey scores for attitudes towards STEM subjects and interests in construction careers were noticed, no significant changes were observed by the educational activity. Ultimately, this study recommends the use of drones in K-12 activities and purposes exploring how students can be attracted to the construction disciplines as future research.
Abstract. Efficient project management is crucial to project success. As the construction industry changes, constructors face new issues and must undertake roles that have not traditionally been part of their responsibility. The aim of this study was to identify the Net Zero Energy Building (NZEB) project management challenges, and to determine the knowledge areas and skills that are necessary to respond to those challenges through surveys and interviews with NZEB constructors. NZEBs consume less resources than produced during operations of the building. Results revealed that the most important challenges were a general unawareness of the correct methods and procedures, reluctance to change from traditional practices, and the lack of the technical skills with NZEB technologies. The most important knowledge areas identified were communication management, schedule management and planning, and cost management. The most important skills were teamwork, leadership, and problem-solving. In addition, this study provides a summary of the importance of the various mechanisms for professional constructors’ development of net zero construction knowledge and skills. This study is beneficial for the constructors’ decision making in the NZEB project context. Educators are also expected to benefit from this study in the development of academic curriculum with a goal to meet the need.
Abstract. To enhance learning outcomes, and to deal with recent shifts in distance learning, instructors are constantly challenged to create more engaging educational content, increasingly so through online platforms. Gaps in how technology is viewed and utilized can cause frustrations in the classroom. Traditional teaching has focused on visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning styles (VAK); however, these methods are no longer meeting the dynamic engagement needs of students in higher education. Technology in the classroom has changed the way students and professors interact with the material presented, and educators have more ways than ever to adapt and improve communication of the material through learning management systems (LMS). This paper presents ways that higher-education instructors can create learning environments to foster understanding and curiosity, strategies to help students learn, and ways to bridge technological gaps in construction and architecture education. Through aa thematic literature review, this paper explores teaching and learning styles, strategies to help students, and differences between classroom and online learning. Findings from this review suggest the advances in technology for the classroom are changing the classroom landscape, including how in-class time can be spent, communication, assignment and assessment design, and the availability of resources for students.
Abstract. Step one of the MEP coordination process identifies the clash between MEP elements followed by step two identifying their potential resolution. Clash identification has been automated using software like Navisworks yet clash resolution remains a slow and manual process. Use of Machine Learning has been explored by researchers to automate clash resolution. These researches utilize graphical information and attributes embedded into Building Information Model (BIM) elements to develop a Machine Learning model making BIMs an integral part of the automation. The literature review shows that the successful implementation of BIMs is supported by well-executed BIM Execution Plans (BxP) and Standards. Therefore, it can be said that a successful implementation of clash resolution automation will require the support of these documents. To assess the readiness of BxP to support the automation of clash resolution, the authors in this paper reviewed three BxP and Standard guides. A comparative analysis of three industry-standard BxP and Standard guides was conducted to reveal the topic covered by them. Results from the review show that the BxPs and Standards are lacking to support the automation of clash resolution. Suggested potential changes to make these documents ready for the implementation of automation of clash resolution are discussed.
Abstract. Alkali-silica reactivity is a deleterious reaction initiated in concrete when aggregates silica reacts with alkali hydroxide in portland cement in the presence of moisture. The ASR results in the formation of expansive gel, which induces internal stresses in hardened concrete, and may lead to concrete cracking, spalling, and possibly structure failure. The main objective of this research is to investigate the impact of supplementary cementitious materials on the gel-formation and the possible use of SCMs in mitigating ASR damage on hardened concrete. In this research, different types of aggregates were used to pour ASR test specimens, and ASR mortar bar tests were conducted according to relevant ASTM specifications. Additional specimens were poured using different percentages of SCMs, mainly silica fume and class C fly ash, and ASR testing was repeated to assess the SCMs impact on ASR. The research outcomes showed that fine SCM particles used in concrete mixes can halt the concrete expansion due to ASR. SCMs efficiency in mitigating ASR is directly proportional to the SCM particle size. The successful use of SCMs in mixing concrete will reduce the rate of concrete deterioration, limit the need for maintenance, and reduce the life cycle cost of concrete construction projects.
Abstract. The transition to a four-year university presents many new challenges for freshmen students transitioning from high school. Students are thrust into a situation where they are solely responsible for balancing a variety of responsibilities, ranging from completing assigned coursework, studying for exams, along with personal and social obligations. Not surprisingly, this freshmen year is the most critical timeframe in determining whether a student will persist at a four-year university. Approximately 1 in 5 freshmen will either change schools or dropout out of their university during the first year. Construction students face additional challenges given their personality tendencies. Effective time management behaviors have demonstrated improved academic performance and increased the likelihood students will persist until graduation. Unfortunately, time management practices are rarely taught at universities and students are expected to learn these behaviors on their own. This paper will demonstrate the implementation of a time management module in a first-year construction management course and assess whether this training resulted in improved academic performance for freshmen construction students.
Abstract. Constructability reviews have been used by multiple departments of transportation (DOTs) in the United States for more than a decade to enhance the project design documents by introducing construction knowledge to the design process. Constructability reviews provide the contractors with a complete set of bid documents that have a reduced possibility of encountering any obstacles during project construction phase. The main objective of this research is to provide DOTs and transportation agencies with guidelines to conduct formal constructability review meetings with increased efficiency. Transportation agency personnel, consultants, and contractors were interviewed to collect data relevant to constructability review meetings best practices, advantages, and disadvantages. The analysis of interviews results determined that conducting constructability review meetings before 50% completion of the design phase is recommended. A successful meeting should include project designer, project manager, and a minimum of 3 general contractors. Attendees should receive advanced information regarding the project, and meetings should be held in the construction site to ensure proper communication. The implementation of the research outcomes will increase the constructability review meeting outcomes, minimize cost and schedule overruns, and enhance the overall safety of the construction project.
Abstract. The Sigma Lambda Chi International Construction Honor Society (SLC) is the only honor society associated with construction management. A few research studies have been published regarding the benefits, criteria, and motivations of joining an honor society, however, no research has been conducted specifically related to the honor society in the field of construction. This paper summarizes the results of a survey conducted to find out the opinions of SLC chapter advisors on how they perceive multiple factors related to student outcomes, the impact of the pandemic on SLC chapter operations, and both internal and external support for their respective SLC chapters. The outcomes revealed several interesting results regarding the benefits, obstacles, and motivations of advising a Sigma Lambda Chi chapter. The results of this study can help to understand the impact of the pandemic on SLC chapter operations. SLC faculty advisors can have a better understanding of their colleagues’ perspectives, and SLC International Directors and Officers can use the results of this study to help to establish new SLC chapters and to be more supportive of existing SLC chapters and their faculty advisors.
Abstract. Previous studies have convincingly shown that active and collaborative instructions, coupled with effective means to encourage student engagement, invariably lead to better learning outcomes. However, despite significant potentials for experiential learning, standard educational programs in construction engineering and management are rigid systems that offer little opportunity for students to engage in active learning that can help them gain first-hand experience and guide them toward discovering solutions. This study aims to address this need by designing and empirically assessing the performance of a novel gamified pedagogical method that teaches construction scheduling through guided active exploration in a digital game environment. The proposed pedagogical approach and its game are designed based on the constructivism learning theory. A scenario-based interactive game, called Zebel, was developed using the Unity game engine. Using a series of pre- and post-assessment instruments, the proposed method was implemented and evaluated in a graduate-level course for construction planning and scheduling to collect empirical data. The outcomes indicated that the proposed pedagogy was able to successfully guide students with no background and prior knowledge in construction scheduling to discover the fundamental concepts and systematic solutions for the problems.
Abstract. Worldwide, approximately 40-50% of annual Sanitary Sewer Systems blockages are caused by fat, oil, and grease. This research study reviewed the issue of fat, oil and grease produced by Food Service Establishments and the impact this has on Sanitary Sewer Systems and measures available as prevention. Additionally, this research focused on the EPA Code of Regulations and the Nashville, TN Code of Ordinances, that determine types of grease control systems, required maintenance, along with Food Service Establishments compliance, and implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs). A survey of twenty (20) Food Service Establishments in Nashville, TN was conducted to understand the necessity for Grease Interceptors and other preventative measures such as self- managed Food Service Operation BMPs and their ability to prevent and protect the Sanitary Sewer System. The survey analysis details that Food Service Operations BMPs are sporadic at best and further research is needed in this area of Sanitary Sewer System protection.
Abstract. Delays with project completion and turnover is a global problem affecting construction and industry partners in many areas. These delays impact both planning and budgeting which are serious concerns for all stakeholders involved and difficult to resolve and overcome. The focus of this research paper is limited to only Military vertical construction projects executed by the Fort Worth District and specifically, the analysis of their associated construction durations. Construction performance data from the United States Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) SWF Primavera Project (P2) database was utilized in this study. The raw dataset covered the period of 2003 to 2021 and included a total of 4,435 projects. This dataset was reduced down to focus only on the 173 Military vertical construction projects executed by the USACE Fort Worth District and completed between the years of 2006 and 2020. The results of this research provide the USACE Project Delivery Team a better understanding of lessons learned and utilization of a more accurate method for establishing construction project durations for USACE projects.
Abstract. Organization and use of data is crucial for a construction company to serve clients in this fast- paced, technology driven world; however, many may not consistently leverage their past bid and completed project data. The purpose of this study was to review and identify present trends and issues in project cost data management processes and to understand what data sharing approaches currently exist within construction companies. The study involved a survey distributed to construction professionals across the United States. A total of 186 survey responses revealed most were trained very little, or not at all, on how to transfer data from estimating software to job cost tracking software. Historical cost data from both successful and unsuccessful bids is typically kept by estimators for use when developing future estimates. This cost data is typically not aggregated into one location, though. Aggregating historical cost data is important and laborious. If data is aggregated, it is done so infrequently and inconsistently. Lastly, many companies do not have a transparent protocol for managing and aggregating data from past projects. The findings of this study are useful for construction practitioners, as well as researchers and construction management educators.
Abstract. Artificial intelligence (AI) has been adopted and applied in many fields and has now become one of the emerging technologies in the automation of the construction industry, which has gained a lot of attention from researchers in recent years. Much research work has been done on applying AI to improve construction safety. However, the current research work is focused on improving safety in separate individual construction tasks and the developed models lack real-world applications. Therefore, a systematic literature review has been conducted on the use of AI including machine learning and deep learning in improving safety in construction practice. After the review of the existing literature, the current applications and practices of AI are identified and classified. This will help in developing a new generalized framework that focuses on the entire construction process for improving safety. The limitations and the potential improvements in the existing AI techniques have been identified which will benefit future studies.
Abstract. Advances in construction technology and practices reflect the need for a curriculum that addresses an increasingly complex construction environment. Most higher education learning institutions that offer a construction management program subscribe to the American Council for Construction Education (ACCE) accreditation requirements. While these guidelines for accreditation provide a degree of uniformity among institutions, they typically cover only essential core skills and do not identify every element that should be taught over an entire curriculum. This paper describes the results of an industry survey to gain feedback on what they desired from our graduates in the area of electrical knowledge. An important conclusion from this study is that skills are ranked differently by electrical contractors and construction managers or general contractors. The survey results are presented with a limited analysis of the data and observation on the findings.
Abstract. Architectural, Engineering, and Construction industry personnel continuously face challenges in executing projects within budget and schedule. Scheduling and cost control are vital processes for achieving project success. A study proposed a framework for integrating building information modeling (BIM) and value engineering (VE) processes to enhance value, minimize costs, improve schedules, and ease information exchange. A case study building project was used to demonstrate how BIM and VE integration can be harmonized and validate the proposed method. The findings showed that using BIM and VE improves design modification and detailed data extraction, e.g., cost, schedule, etc. The outcome indicated the significance of using both BIM and VE to enhance project functionality, performance, and team coordination throughout the project lifecycle. This study provided the value of the integrated BIM and VE, including understanding the project requirements, improving team dynamics, seamless data exchange, and a comprehensive understanding of linking weighted and functional analysis to BIM processes and validated recommended project solutions. The proposed framework provided an option for virtually evaluating design changes and reducing errors during construction.
Abstract. Clash resolution is considered a critical step to resolve issues among the different disciplines for a construction design to be realized as expected. This step, however, continues to remain slow and manual which can significantly delay a project and drive-up costs. A combined machine learning model was proposed by Harode and Thabet (2021) to automate the clash resolution process. A large amount of labeled dataset is required to train and test the proposed model. The dataset is planned to be extracted from various industry-provided federated construction BIMs. Federated construction models are created from multiple subcontractor component models authored using different software. As a result, data is stored in various formats using different data structures making the extraction process difficult. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the use of commercially available software tools including iConstruct, Dynamo, and Talend to overcome this limitation and extract the necessary data. The paper first defines the required data structure followed by a data extraction process to capture required data from clashing elements in the federated BIMs. The paper also discusses a novel method of extracting end point coordinates and moveable area for clashing elements using bounding boxes. The paper concludes with future research directions.
Abstract. Evidence shows that the college-age generation prefers learning by video to all other methods. However, many instructional videos produced by faculty and staff amount to little more than recorded lectures, causing students to report that they are long, dull, low-quality, and ineffective. As part of a broader study on object-based learning, this paper reports the attitudes that construction management students have toward a popular type of instructional video called supplemental instructional videos (SIVs). SIVs are designed to aid and reinforce primary learning materials and methods, not replace them or merely enhance them. The SIVs were produced by the instructors in accordance with an interdisciplinary curation of the latest literature covering the proper design and development of instructional videos. Data were collected using mixed methods and the Quality of Experience (QoE) strategy, relying on surveys and interviews to draw conclusions about student perspectives. Overwhelmingly, participants stated their preference for SIVs and reported that they improved their understanding of the subject matter. In spite of this, surprisingly, students were divided as to whether the SIVs had any real impact on their performance in terms of grades. The research also confirmed that SIVs are most appropriate for complex learning topics.
Abstract. The application of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Virtual Reality (VR) has been explored within the context of the Architectural Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry to enhance visualization and communication among stakeholders. VR applications have extended into the AEC educational environment as a learning tool to aid students in better visualizing and understanding the project. This was done to mitigate the shortcomings of traditional 2D plans that are not as readily understood. The existing literature indicates that teaching Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing (MEP) plan reading with BIM/VR support has been explored minimally and qualitatively. The authors of this paper aim to fill this gap and present a quantitative study of BIM/VR applications in assisting MEP plan reading. In this study, the participants who are sophomore level students with minimal experience with BIM/VR and MEP systems were split into control and test groups, respectively. The effectiveness of learning was assessed statistically through pre-training and post-training quizzes. Furthermore, both groups were asked to complete a Likert scale questionnaire to evaluate their attitudes toward BIM/VR applications at the end of the study. The results show that BIM/VR integration significantly improved the performance of students.
Abstract. This research contributes to the understanding of digital demonstrators as a tool for classroom instruction in the use of laser scanners. Laser scanning technology plays an essential role in construction management. At the university level, students in this domain must demonstrate theoretical knowledge through hands-on exposure to laser scanning technology. Obtaining laser scanners requires a substantial capital investment as well as ongoing maintenance costs. This impedes the ability of many institutions to provide scanners for classroom use, resulting in a scarcity of such equipment and posing an instructional challenge. Use of digital demonstrators offers the potential to augment or replace a physical laser scanner in the classroom. For this study, researchers examined the current method of scanner instruction and developed a simulated scanner which functions as a digital demonstrator. The use of the demonstrator was subjected to mixed methods analysis using both undergraduate and graduate student subjects at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Testing concluded that integrating the digital demonstrator in the instruction workflow enhanced student learning and enabled those who used it to rapidly adapt to a physical scanner. The paper finally offers suggestions for further research including wider testing and examination of broader applications within STEM instruction.
Abstract. Transportation construction projects involve long working hours where workers are subjected to intensive tasks such as hard manual work and compulsive working postures. Physically demanding work can be fatiguing as well as alter the mental state, which may, in turn, lead to decreased productivity, poor judgement, and ultimately more accidents and injuries. Therefore, monitoring and controlling physical demand is of paramount importance to sustain productivity without undermining workers' safety and health. The objective of this study is to apply a non-intrusive system to monitor and assess the physical demand of transportation construction workers using the percentage of Heart Rate Reserve (%HRR) as a measure. For this study, five bridge maintenance workers volunteered to record their physiological metrics while performing various construction and maintenance tasks. The case study results showed that bridge maintenance workers had an average daily %HRR over %30 which according to the literature can be considered as having a “high” cardiovascular load during an eight hour working day. The primary contribution of this research is the assessment of the physical demands of transportation construction workers with respect to acceptable physiological thresholds and boundaries. The application of the present approach can support construction workers in preventing excessive cardiovascular overload.
Abstract. Safety management and occupational health are essential for construction work. Several studies examine the extent to which physical activity impacts the health and safety of construction workers. To date, however, few studies directly assess the impact of construction activities. This research analyzes physiological and environmental data to explore the impact of construction activity on individual workers, under a range of ambient conditions. Vital signs and physical indicators including heart rate, breathing rate, core temperature, physiological load, mechanical load and posture were collected from a relatively homogeneous set of US Air Force Academy cadets while performing four different construction activities. Results suggest average physiological measures (i.e. mean Heart Rate, Breathing Rate etc.) statistically vary by individual even for individuals similar in age, health, and fitness. Despite individual distinctions, statistical trends and patterns are observable across construction activities. Specifically, the results demonstrate that concrete and asphalt placement are generally more physically demanding, followed by, heavy equipment operation and surveying activities respectively. In addition, the ambient variable, Heat Index, plays a significant role and merits future research. The primary contribution of the research is to demonstrate a method for monitoring and assessing discrete physiological metrics across individuals as well as construction activity.
Abstract. Construction companies work in a highly competitive market and often the smallest difference in how they approach project cost and productivity can determine their success. Also some of these companies struggles to take advantage of efficiencies in productivity when the gains cannot be easily observed. Within academia, there is an ongoing trend toward research that focuses on productivity and innovation that tackles some of the well know issues plaguing the industry. More recently, the labor supply worldwide is struggling to keep pace with the demand for construction services. In this research, four potential solutions addressing the labor shortage were identified in the current literature on robotics, off-site construction, wage re-evaluation, and vocational education. The study gathered electronic survey data from industry professionals concerning these potential solutions and discerned that off-site construction, wage re-evaluation, and vocational education seemed to be favorable options, while robotics were perceived as not ready yet. The remainder of the paper analyzes these results and provides some additional context to the responses from the various open-ended questions that were also collected during the study.
Abstract. The construction industry in the United States is currently undergoing historic shortage of skilled workforce. Several research studies have suggested to attract, recruit, and retain women in construction trades to address some of the workforce shortages in the future and also to improve jobsite productivity. Despite undertaking efforts in this direction to improve recruitment and retention of women in trades, it is observed that several women either left or considered leaving construction trades at some point in their careers. Previous studies focused on issues specific to women in administrative, managerial and leadership roles, however there is very limited knowledge relevant to issues of tradeswomen. This study exclusively focuses on tradeswomen and investigates the causes that influences tradeswomen to leave the construction industry with an intent to develop recommendations to improve their retention. To achieve the objectives, this study conducted twelve qualitative interviews with tradeswomen working in a variety of trades. The study identified important factors such as male dominant culture, inadequate attention from employers regarding tradeswomen issues, workplace and sexual harassment, discrimination such as pay imbalances, improper facilities, and misfit PPE Furthermore, recommendations for employers and industry organization were provided to improve tradeswomen retention. Understanding tradeswomen challenges helps improve their retention thereby improving the diversity in construction industry and contributes to the success of tradeswomen.
Abstract. Competency grading is a non-traditional grading style that focuses on the proficiency of the learner. It has been proven in other studies to be an alternative grading system that works well in technical courses and has a lot of benefits for both the student and the instructor. The results of the data analysis for this study indicate that the mean grade in the follow-on course entitled “Introduction to Concrete and Steel Design” is higher when competency grading is used in the prerequisite course “Statics and Mechanics of Materials” than when traditional grading is used. The competency grading style helped students be more successful in the follow-on course than students taught with a traditional grading style because of changes to both student and instructor behaviors. Lessons learned are also included for faculty interested in considering adopting competency grading in their courses.
Abstract. The British climate means that space heating is an important element of the national energy budget and is therefore a significant part of the challenge to meet the UK legal target of zero carbon by 2050. One of the solutions to this challenge is the widespread deployment of heat pumps to replace gas fuelled heating systems in buildings. Heat pumps are electrically driven and can be highly efficient. The increase in renewable sources of electricity has made electricity comparable to gas in terms of carbon intensity. However, this method of heating buildings places greater strain on the National Grid. This study examines a heat pump installation in an existing educational building previously heated by gas. Temperatures and heat outputs were logged for a typical space within the building for a defined period when weather conditions imposed a large load. Data indicated that the heat pump system coped with abnormally low outside temperatures, though further fine-tuning of controls and refinement of other services is necessary to limit the increase in electrical demand.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic has had an enormous and long-term impact on education systems across the nation. Consequently, many colleges and universities adopted a verity of different instructional strategies and new policies to mitigate the effects of this transition on academic achievement, student learning, and emotional well-being. This instantaneous change to the new pedagogical models was likely to impact both students and instructors. In this study, a survey was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of adopting innovative teaching approaches in online and hybrid frameworks on students’ engagement, achievement, and attainment at Northern Kentucky University. Two statistical t-test and ANOVA test were performed to compare the results and demonstrate the significant differences between groups of data. In addition, the survey responses were correlated with grades in the subsequent semesters to determine efficacy. The result shows that incorporating active and interactive learning strategies can improve online learning experience of students. The responses indicate that introductory level and lab-based courses may benefit more from aforementioned strategies.
Abstract. Significant advantages of automation including less reliance on human laborers in hazardous conditions, and reduced generation of wastes create substantial sustainability potentials. In order to maximize the benefits from these potentials, policies for aligning automation with long-term sustainability goals are required, yet hard to find. Consequently, the high potentials of automation are not sufficiently applied in the industry. Therefore, the stepping stone is identifying the existing issues from the lens of experts. This paper introduces a holistic approach to integrate and maximize construction automation’s contribution to the triple bottom lines of suitability. A comprehensive review of publications will be used to identify the potential barriers. Constructional industry professionals and automation researchers will then be interviewed to analyze and formulate the approach. In each section, the barriers to applying integration practices are also discussed. The paper is expected to contribute to the goal of progressing automation to create safe, productive, and environmental-friendly construction approaches.
Abstract. Despite the increased focus on safety management in recent years, the construction industry's accident rate remains extraordinarily high. High physical demands and difficult work environments, which lead to physical and mental fatigue in construction workers, are one of the key causes of the continuous high rate of construction accidents. This study begins with a description of the causes and effects of fatigue among construction workers. In the second section, the subjective and objective evaluation methods for physical fatigue are discussed. The advantages and drawbacks of fatigue measurement technologies such as self-reporting and on-body sensors are reviewed. Thirdly, the major approaches for predicting and quantifying fatigue, as well as their limitations, are discussed. In addition, mitigation and management of fatigue in construction projects, as well
as successful methods such as work-rest people scheduling, are discussed. The paper concludes by highlighting the fragmentation and inconsistencies in the available research as well as the opportunity for future studies to fill the existing gaps. The study is designed to give an effective evaluation of the available information on defining, assessing, detecting, quantifying, mitigating, and managing fatigues, as well as shed light on the recommended and required future steps in research for each category.
Abstract. Sagging floors along with cracked interior finishes and exterior masonry is commonplace for structures that have been in service for an extended period of time. Differential settlement is a phenomenon that many structures undergo. A historical building society had a building that was over 150 years old and was experiencing the aforementioned distresses. Wanting a second opinion they called a local university for their expertise and help. The faculty decided this project would be a great opportunity for an undergraduate construction science student to interact with a client and develop a solution. The project led to a great experiential learning opportunity for one student. The student was able to interact with a client and come up with real world solutions, just like they would have to endure once in industry. The student had to determine what was causing the cracking and find a way to prove if there were immediate safety concerns for the building. In the end everyone benefited from the project as the historical building society received a valuable second opinion and an undergraduate student found practical uses for ideas to solve problems and make decisions based on the findings.
Abstract. This paper explores future research directions on social sustainability in the construction industry through a systematic literature review of studies focusing on multiple criteria. The analysis involved 36 studies identified through the Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Scopus. The results uncovered how social sustainability assessment is conducted, and where the studies are taking place, mostly in developing countries. On average, the reviewed studies used 29 criteria to assess social sustainability. That large number of criteria indicates a need to find a subset of criteria capable of representing social sustainability complexity. Regarding the methods identified, Multicriteria Decision-Making/Aiding (MCDM/A) methods are the most used, including the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and weighted aggregation. However, it is difficult to confirm if they are the most appropriate since the authors did not mention how these methodologies were selected or the decision-makers’ rationality, which is necessary for choosing the proper MCDM/A method. Thus, future studies in social sustainability should focus on: i) dimensionality reduction and ii) the structure of the decision problem to correctly choose the decision method. These two recommendations will add to the body of knowledge, especially to the value of integrating the social aspect of sustainability in construction.
Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on the healthcare and construction industries. The high transmission rate of virus variants and the low rate of return to work after patients recovered from the disease are the main reasons for this situation. This research focuses on the influences of construction project management challenges on scheduling considerations. After the literature review, this paper compares three event-study methods to establish a methodology for both a regional and a national project demand forecast. Then, this paper explains the process of data collection on economic impacts on labor-intensive markets like construction and demand forecast. In this research, the available datasets were extracted and analyzed from the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Healthcare Safety Network. The analysis indicates that around 20-60% of the population in the U.S. was influenced by the pandemic on the national level. About 30% of the population was affected in the selected state. Using case studies, expert knowledge, and statistical simulations, the data analysis identified causes of resource shortages and substances of scheduling reconsideration. The results indicate that project managers should carefully assess the changed resource limitations that call for flexible and resilient scheduling approaches.
Abstract. Proper maintenance planning for bridges is necessary as it impacts the performance, safety, and maintenance costs. Implementing less costly interventions on time can reduce the deterioration of components, enhance performance of bridges, and prevent necessity of costly interventions. However, maintenance of bridges is often delayed due to lack of proper planning and limitations of recourses such as funds. This paper presents the development of a multi-objective maintenance optimization model for bridges that can identify optimum trade-offs between two important objectives of minimizing maintenance costs and maximizing performance of bridges. To this end, a multi-objective model is developed in three main steps: (i) formulation step where decision variables, objective function, and constraints are identified and formulated; (ii) implementation step that performs the model computations; and (iii) performance evaluation step where a case study is analyzed to illustrate the capabilities of the developed model. The computations of the optimization model are implemented using epsilon-constraint method and binary linear programing due to their capability of identifying optimal solutions in a short computational time. The case study results illustrated that the developed model identified pareto-optimal solutions of the above optimization objectives for a study period of 50 years.
Abstract. Exposure to wildfire-related smoke has serious implications for the health outcomes of outdoor occupational workers. As wildfire season is becoming more prolonged in California, outdoor building construction workers are at great risk of exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution caused by wildfire smoke. Wildfire smoke PM2.5 exposure has been shown to result in short-term health impairments, missed workdays, and long-term disease progression. Studies highlighting the exposure of outdoor building construction workers to wildfire-related PM2.5 is limited in the existing literature. Using historical wildfires data, employment data of outdoor building construction workers, and air quality data for PM2.5 pollution from 2010-2020, this paper investigates the potential exposure of outdoor building construction workers to wildfire smoke PM2.5 in California. Counties which experienced wildfire events were identified by intersecting wildfire perimeters with county boundaries using the geospatial analysis software ArcGIS. Monthly employment during wildfire months and the number of days when the PM2.5 air quality reached unhealthy levels during those months were evaluated to find the worker smoke exposure days of each county. Results show that outdoor building construction workers in California are vulnerable to wildfire PM2.5 exposure and associated health risks, as the typical wildfire season aligns with peak seasonal construction work.
Abstract. Exposure to wildfire-related smoke has serious implications for the health outcomes of outdoor occupational workers. As wildfire season is becoming more prolonged in California, outdoor building construction workers are at great risk of exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution caused by wildfire smoke. Wildfire smoke PM2.5 exposure has been shown to result in short-term health impairments, missed workdays, and long-term disease progression. Studies highlighting the exposure of outdoor building construction workers to wildfire-related PM2.5 is limited in the existing literature. Using historical wildfires data, employment data of outdoor building construction workers, and air quality data for PM2.5 pollution from 2010-2020, this paper investigates the potential exposure of outdoor building construction workers to wildfire smoke PM2.5 in California. Counties which experienced wildfire events were identified by intersecting wildfire perimeters with county boundaries using the geospatial analysis software ArcGIS. Monthly employment during wildfire months and the number of days when the PM2.5 air quality reached unhealthy levels during those months were evaluated to find the worker smoke exposure days of each county. Results show that outdoor building construction workers in California are vulnerable to wildfire PM2.5 exposure and associated health risks, as the typical wildfire season aligns with peak seasonal construction work.
Abstract. The presence of arthropods is a fact of life in most buildings. While many are innocuous, some may have negative impacts on human occupants’ health or economic well-being, like cockroaches, bed bugs, and pantry moths. Understanding the behavior and ecology of domestic arthropods is critical for indoor pest management and sustainability, and can support Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plans. Building Information Modeling (BIM) has the potential to serve as the data analysis and simulation platform for domestic arthropod studies. This research maps the current and potential functions of BIM to the needs of domestic arthropod studies, and conceptualizes a system architecture for a BIM-enabled simulation engine and platform for this purpose. This platform will contribute to the digitalization of structural IPM and will serve as an educational tool for professionals and students.
Abstract. The proliferation of mass timber structures across the United States has begun. So much so, a comprehensive evaluation of key building attributes and identification of trends in built structures can be measured. This study utilizes a comprehensive market analysis of existing commercial mass timber structures to quantify important attributes to gain au fait and establish a baseline dataset. Specific interest lies in key areas, sustainability certification frequency and type, location, size, cost, and construction type. This study deploys descriptive statistics to evaluate 229 completed mass timber commercial projects across the United States. The study draws linkages and observes relationships between sustainability rating systems and mass timber structures, geographic concentrations, project cost, project size and height, building type, and building location. The expansion of mass timber is highlighted by the fact that nearly 80% of states across the country are home to a commercial MT building, with an average price per square foot of $344.89, and sustainability rating presence in over 30% of projects.
Abstract. Electrocutions are preventable, but still rank as the third leading cause of death on U.S. construction jobsites between 2015 to 2019. Eight percent (8%), or 401 of the 5,172 construction-related fatalities between 2015 and 2019 were due to electrocution. The research study presented in this paper reviewed the 310 investigations conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) on the electrocution-related construction fatalities that occurred between 2015-2019 to identify potential trends for these fatal electrocution incidents. This study found that contact with energized wires, especially overhead powerlines, were responsible for the majority of construction worker fatal electrocutions. As a result, this study points out the most common electrocution hazards to help construction practitioners mitigate the propensity and frequency at which these fatal events occur.
Abstract. Thirteen cities in USA are required to follow façade ordinance law for inspecting building façade. Traditionally the approaches to identify building façade defects are contact method with the help of monorail system, temporary suspended working platform and so forth. Visual inspections with contacted method suffer from several challenges and problems including low safety, low productivity, and low reliability. The results of visual inspection can be reliable when dealing with small structures with easily visible parts, but it is not easy for a surveyor to analyze high rise buildings or assess anomalies that are in deeper location without proper means of access and with unfavorable weather conditions. Visible inspection highly depends on the experience of the surveyor alone making the process subjective, human dependent, time consuming and having low accuracy in defect’s measurement in certain situations. It is important to adopt a standard building façade inspection strategy which is fundamental throughout the life cycle analysis of the building. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) coupled with good quality cameras to capture HD images and videos or infrared cameras and 3D laser scanners to identify damages and cracking in building facades is promising technology which should be commercialized to inspect building facades.
Abstract. Buildings consume nearly 40% of the global energy supply and 16% of fresh water annually in their construction and operation, resulting in 39% of the global carbon emissions. Looking at the rate at which the global climate is changing, reducing energy and carbon impacts as well as water use of construction is essential. This paper presents input-output-based hybrid models to analyze embodied energy (EE), embodied carbon (EC), and embodied water (EW) of fourteen construction materials and a university building. The results indicate that the total EE, EC, and EW values of the university building are 4.5 MBtu/ ft2, 528.7 kgCO2/ft2, and 1,049.6 gallon/ft2, respectively. These results emphasize the extensive energy, carbon, and water impacts associated with building construction, which must be addressed. The intensities of total EE and EW of the construction materials vary in the range of 0.1-11.0 MBtu/ft2 and 2.2-134.3 gallon/ft2 indicating water use as an important indicator for material selection. The EC and EW values share a strong positive correlation at the building level, which weakens at the material intensity level. Findings highlight the significance of selecting materials based on not just energy and carbon impacts but also embodied water use.
Abstract. One of the essential elements of the built environment is the roofing system since it provides protection form environmental and natural elements. Therefore, roofing can play a critical role in sustainability via energy efficiency for any facility. Roofing manufacturers play a crucial role in the roofing industry, especially since the majority of the roofing materials are manufactured in the United States; however, exported to the world. The performance of a roof varies according to the type of roof, and each type has its own advantages and disadvantages as it relates to sustainability. Various roofing manufacturers make claims on various sustainability factors such as (a) UV Resistance, (b) Ozone Resistance, (c) Durability, (d) Energy Efficiency, (e) Emissivity, and (f) Environment Friendly. This study documents and evaluates the basis of sustainability claims of various types of roofing materials/systems. Sustainability claims were mapped and categorized with industry standards and certifications. Text analysis was performed by organizing and evaluating unstructured text from websites, brochures, technical data sheets, and specifications from seventeen roofing manufacturers. The current study allowed a visualized map among roofing manufacturer products, standards, certifications, and testing procedures with multiple sustainability claims.
Abstract. As a most important industry in the U.S., the construction industry faces multiple challenges since the COVID-19 pandemic. Backed by government interventions that have helped streamline construction projects, however, the aftermath of the pandemic is still vague. One of the imperative issues to be examined is the construction market concentration since the pandemic, especially how it is compared to the Great Recession. This study statistically analyzes the revenue gaps among the U.S. construction companies and the changes of their revenue rankings. This study uses the data from Engineering News-Record Top List of Contractors. The results show that unlike the Great Recession, which obviously enlarged the revenue gaps, there is no evidence yet demonstrating that the COVID-19 pandemic caused noteworthy disruptions to the revenue gap among construction companies. The government interventions, such as the Paycheck Protection Program and the Infrastructure Investment and Job Act, are regarded as effective stabilizers, until the cutoff of data collection at the beginning of 2022. The medians of ranking changes across years generally remain stable, including the period of pandemic. The study also indicates the necessity to include more longitudinal data and sectional data to explore long-term impacts and sector-wise conditions.
Abstract. This study investigates the relationship between the LEED BD+C for New Construction (LEED-NC) scores achieved by projects and their scores from each credit category to assess the consistency between the expected and the actual influence of these credit categories in determining the sustainability of a project. The data was collected about all of the built LEED-BD+C for New Construction projects and the relationships between each credit category and the sustainability level of the projects, defined by LEED scores, were evaluated through multiple linear regression analysis. The findings showed the harmony between the expected and the actual influence of the Energy and Atmosphere category and Sustainable Site category in determining the overall sustainability of the projects. However, the three credit categories of Materials and Resources, Indoor Environmental Quality, and Water Efficiency did not show any harmony between the expected and the actual influence on determining the overall sustainability level of projects. The findings of this study illustrate the need for enhancing the consistency between the existing sustainability evaluation criteria and suggests more comprehensive research on the factors defining the level of sustainability of a project.
Abstract. The coronavirus disease has plagued the United States beginning in March 2020 and extending to today, leaving everyone uncertain. Governmental shutdowns, the spread of infection, and more than a million deaths have threatened communities and industries. The residential construction industry was not immune to these challenges. In particular, the residential construction industry contributes significantly to the United States’ economic health and growth, so it is crucial to understand this industry’s adversities during the pandemic. This study aims to understand the residential construction industry’s employment differences between different construction trades and different geographical areas pre-COVID-19 and during COVID-19. The geographical areas analyzed were three metropolitan areas in the U.S., including Miami, FL., Los Angeles, CA, and Columbus, OH. Six different trades were analyzed within these three metropolitan areas, consisting of three interior and three exterior trades. The results indicated an employment disparity amongst construction trades across different metropolitan areas. With this information, the residential construction industry may understand which trades and their geographical areas are more susceptible to employment hardships during economic and health downturns.
Abstract. There are few studies which expand upon construction management pedagogical content to guide professors, especially new professors, in the creation and development of hands-on labs. This paper is a case study adding to the construction management body of knowledge to show engineering and construction management educators a framework on how laboratory exercises for making, curing, capping and testing concrete compression cylinders, based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) procedures, were developed and incorporated into a senior level construction management course. Included is a course history, description of the laboratory space and equipment and discussion of how the laboratory exercises relate to student learning. Numerical and graphical results of testing concrete cylinders at four different water-to- cement ratios are presented and discussed. Also, future opportunities for similar hands-on student laboratory exercises are identified and discussed.
Abstract. Considering the degree and rate of aging of construction workers around the globe, which is compounded by intensifying labor shortages, the industry requires serious attention to workplace policies that safeguard older workers against ageist stereotypes and prevent early retirement while at the same time attracting younger workers. Ageism has been identified as a barrier in all four layers of career progression (recruitment and hiring, retention, promotion, and firing/dismissal). Therefore, the steps to tackle ageism in the construction industry need to include a strategy that ensures the career progression of older and experienced workers, and an approach that welcomes a more diverse young workforce. Through a comprehensive literature review, this research sought to explore the current state of ageism in the construction industry. The findings of this research show that even though minimal research has been conducted thus far, there is a strong business case that justifies further research in this area. Research findings further point out to ageism as a threat in career progression. Sources of ageism barriers include societal and employer attitudes, coded language, and worker self- directed ageism. This research recommends both quantitative and qualitative analyzes of the prevalence and impacts of ageism in the construction industry.
Abstract. Modular construction has been gaining momentum worldwide due to its potential in increasing project efficiency and reducing construction waste. It is centered around the utilization of prefabricated components and modules produced in off-site factories. Due to its unique features and close relationship with manufacturing industry, the supply chain management of modular construction requires more attention since transporting standardized modular parts with different completion levels is complicated to manage. What’s more, the supply chain mapping and scheduling need to be improved due to the more specific requirements in terms of module components categories, building types, and labor availability and cost. In this research, the goal is to envision the future of modular construction supply chain management for more proactive adoption of modular construction. After conducting a systematic literature review, this research provides insights and recommendations for the current mapping design, scheduling, monitoring, and risk management. The contribution of this research involves the cost-benefit analysis of modular construction and a proposal for an enhanced supply chain system to increase logistics efficiency.
Abstract. This article investigates spatial discrepancies existing between two simple, close-range photogrammetry (CRP) models and a terrestrial light detection and ranging (T-LiDAR) model. The latter is more accurate and serves as benchmark. The commonly modeled zone is a six-acre commercial property. All three models were georeferenced in the same coordinate system before acquiring spatial coordinates of 50 common points from each of them. Two models were produced via CRP, employing Agisoft’s Metashape Professional software, and one, the benchmark model, was generated using Leica Geosystems’ C10 scanner. This laser-based model used Leica’s Visual Alignment procedure for registration purposes. This approach is not the most accurate available today, however, it requires minimal target acquisitions and saves considerable time in the field. One of the CRP models was built with pictures taken from an UAV flying at an approximate 76-ft altitude over ground level. The second CRP model was produced with pictures taken from a 116-ft altitude. Fifty positions and 1,225 distance discrepancies were calculated for each CRP model with respect to the same points and distances acquired from the T-LiDAR model. The compared distances ranged from 0.02 to 415.50 ft. A statistical analysis of those discrepancies is presented in this paper.
Abstract. As the highway construction industry faces significant challenges in rehabilitating aging infrastructure and meeting growing traffic volumes, delivering projects within available funds becomes far more critical. Fixed budget-best value (FB-BV), also known as “design-to-costs”, allows state departments of transportation (DOTs) to generate more amount of work while achieving the best value for dollars expended. This paper aims to investigate practices of FB-BV for highway projects in state DOTs and analyze case studies of FB-BV procurement contracting strategies. This study presents practices and case studies related to FB-BV procurement contracting strategies in four state highway agencies including, Idaho, Michigan, Utah, and Colorado. This paper reviewed the current state of practices in the FB-BV procurement method and identified best practices in utilizing this innovative contracting method. The results showed that defining the basic configuration scope, defining additional scope elements, and establishing rigorous evaluation criteria and their weights are critical for successfully delivering projects with the FB-BV contracting strategy. The findings of this study contribute to the state of knowledge and practice of the FB-BV procurement method and help state DOTs establish an effective process for implementing the FB-BV contracting method under a strict budget.
Abstract. With the influx of a new workforce (Generation Z) into the construction industry and their dominance in higher education, whether the current educational experience is suitable for this new cohort has been investigated focusing on terminal applications such as IT applications (VR) and software usages (Revit). Limited attention is given to the cognitive process of learning of Generation Z despite their different knowledge acquisition practices – learning is to learn “where to find information” rather than analyzing and synthesizing information. This study did qualitative research and identified driving factors using the Girvan Newman algorithm. From the community analysis, the study found that seeking assistance coupled with the lack of construction fundamentals and limited understanding of construction project documents does not help improve learning. The right interpretation of the problem statement and enough understanding of the process are required for the successful execution of activities in the project, which can be obtained through the preparation of basic knowledge such as plan reading and construction fundamentals. In addition, providing opportunities for self-assessment through metacognition questions should be counted in to promote active learning and exercising critical thinking skills that are analyzing arguments, inferencing, judging information, and making decisions.
Abstract. Project cost overrun is a significant concern in construction. Statistics reveal that more than 80% of construction projects have not been completed on agreed time or budget due to numerous factors. In the context of the UK construction industry, the subcontractor led approaches are highly encouraged to absorb their expertise and knowledge into the field, which will help projects to complete on time, cost and quality. However, most of the subcontractors are highly reliant on outsourced/external labour. Literature acknowledges the conflicts between main and sub-contractor as one of significant causes for cost overruns and further explains these are mainly due to the issues of sub contractor’s labour. However there is limited research on the impacts of outsourced labour in subcontractor’s cost overruns. Therefore, this research aims to bridge this gap by identifying the causes of cost overruns due to external labour. Apart from the literature review, the data was collected from a case study of a drywall subcontractor. As part of the case study, six construction professionals of the selected subcontractor were interviewed and thematic analysis was adopted to analyse the data. The results revealed; high wastage, poor workmanship and frequent rework, low productivity, issues with buildability and dayworks as the main causes for cost overruns due to outsourced labour. Moreover, subcontractors are averse to enforce strong performance measures on the outsourced labour due to the fear of low retention.
Abstract. Construction projects use prescriptive codes to regulate multiple stages of concrete construction activities. Prescriptive codes are suitable for design-bid-build projects as it provides sufficient details for different project parties. Despite of its advantage, prescriptive codes represent an impediment to the potential improvement of concrete mix characteristics, including immediate mix properties, long-term performance, and concrete sustainability due to the restrictions imposed on material selection, constituent proportions and batching and mixing procedures. To improve construction projects quality and long-term performance, current federal legislatures focus on the replacement of prescriptive codes with performance-based specifications, where the concrete mix is designed and optimized to attain specific long-term performance criteria decided according to the project service conditions. This research paper presents the possible outcomes of utilizing performance-based specifications in replacement of prescriptive codes in concrete construction; and presents the changes to be adopted in project quality control procedures to ensure its successful implementation in future projects. The results of this research show that performance-based specifications are advantageous in fast-track projects, including design-build project delivery. Concrete mixes produced according to performance-specs have superior long-term performance characteristics, higher durability, and improved sustainability. Due to the increased durability, structural concrete designed and poured using performance specs need lower maintenance intervention, which reduce construction projects life cycle cost.
Abstract. Multiple roofing systems in the construction industry and installing high-quality roofing products are vital for efficient building operations. Inadequacies in design, materials, installation workmanship or maintenance can result in defects and surface anomalies in the roofing membrane- like blisters, open seams, and holes. The current study investigates if there is a relationship between roof distress features - blisters and ponding and the low slope sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) roofs, especially when roofs do not conform to the minimum slope of 1/4 inch. The researchers' team conducted a quality inspection survey for the SPF roofs (#96 non-granular and #1068 granular aggregate roofs). The visual observations populated data to develop an account of the percentage of blisters and surface defects such as ponding, penetrations, delamination, and bird pecks of the SPF roofs. Statistical analyses utilizing Pearson correlation, t-test, and Chi-Square test evaluated the correlation between ponding and blisters to confirm if non-conforming roof slopes lead to defects and surface anomalies. As a result, the study established that the roof's slope significantly influenced the ponding area of granular and non-granular aggregate SPF roofs. Ponding and blisters are likely to exist in non-granular while ponding in granular roofs.
Abstract. The construction industry is renowned as being masculine and competitive, due to its male-dominated and cutthroat nature, where mental health is often disregarded. Thankfully, in recent times, workers' mental health has started to become a priority to upper management, however, problems still exist. Therefore, this study aims to determine what are the main stressors leading to poor mental health, and what strategies can be implemented to tackle the issue, in the Irish construction industry. A mixed methods approach was undertaken, using five semi-structured individual interviews, and a questionnaire survey with professionals working in the Irish construction industry. The data was thematically analysed where emerging themes and topics were identified. Four main stressors were identified: long work and commute hours, poor work-life balance, unrealistic work goals and overload, and the ‘macho man’ culture and stigma preventing workers from speaking out. Three key strategies were identified: mental health training within the organisation, communication of clear work goals and objectives, and reduction of work hours and remote / flexible working. Overall, the key contribution of this study emphasises that there are many stressors leading to poor mental health, however, key strategies can be incorporated to counteract these issues across the Irish construction industry.
Abstract. In this research, a comprehensive environmental-based approach is applied to evaluate the effectiveness of biomass ashes processing methods to produce cementitious materials. Efforts are put in research to obtain new low-carbon cementitious materials by incorporating waste, such as sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA). Processing methods are commonly used to counteract the drawbacks linked to the nature of ashes and boost their benefits, but the energy needed to do this, can jeopardize their environmental interest and is commonly disregarded by researchers. This research investigates the benefits of processing SCBA by mechanical activation in the production of mortars and its environmental impact. It was found that treated ashes outperforms when substituting fine aggregates, increasing the compressive strength (CoS) of plain mortars by 62%. Despite the higher embodied carbon (EC) per cubic meter, treated SCBA in substitution of fine aggregates result in higher eco-strength efficiency, +32%. This enables the reduction of structural elements’ sections diminishing the material use and the ultimate EC, named in this research as specific embodied carbon, up to 40%.
Abstract. For over half a century, the Associated Schools of Construction (ASC) conference has progressively contributed to the built environment both in academia and industry. ASC Conference uses education and practice as the main themes to channel papers that range across different built environment disciplines. Although most contributions to the ASC conference were facilitated by US-based institutions, there is a growing international interest, hence, it is vital to recognize conference considerations, contributions to academia and the industry and shed the light on future trends. This paper attempted to thematically review ASC proceedings from 2002-2021 retrieved from ASC archives with a total of 1317 manuscripts. The findings revealed that the main themes of academia and industry have been equally recognized in the ASC conference proceedings with a noticeable rise toward industry-based publications in recent years. As resulted from thematic analysis, 11 main publication disciplines were proposed. The construction management, risk management and sustainability disciplines have been mostly served among the proposed disciplines. The trend analysis highlighted the growing tendency to integrate technology features into academia and industry research. Finally, the key research findings facilitate a robust mechanism to determine future ASC conference themes while unveiling avenues to expand international outreach and exposure.
Abstract. This paper synthesizes the lessons learned from the experience of developing and teaching a Case- Based Learning (CBL) course in Construction Engineering and Management (CEM) with a diverse group of industry partners. The authors analyzed and compared the participants' reflections on their experiences throughout the course to identify: 1) the factors that may foster and hinder students' learning and 2) potential opportunities and challenges of interacting with industry practitioners when using CBL as the core teaching strategy in a CEM course. While structuring the course, instructors should invest time in increasing the navigability of practitioners' supplemental material and guiding students through it. Case order matters –complexity and uncertainty should increase as students gain confidence with CBL—and including deliberate team preparation time was highly welcomed by students. Practitioners' presence in the classroom increased case credibility, which resulted in more self-reported student engagement. Welcoming more actors allows students to analyze the cases from diverse points of view. Instructors should act as discussion facilitators. Looking forward, practitioners should start documenting the alternatives considered beyond the definitive solution of a case to enrich the case's contents. These outcomes provide instructors interested in implementing CBL in their engineering courses with insights grounded in experience that will ease the process from ideation to delivery.
Abstract. The demand for construction managers (CMs) in the United States continues to increase. Being predominately white and male-centric has not helped reduce the challenge that comes with the need for more CM professionals. This research explores the lived experience and supports systems Latinx students experience in construction education at a predominately white university utilizing the Latinx critical race theory (LatCrit) lens. Four first generation Latinx undergraduate students - two Latino (male) and two Latina (female) - participated in this study, and a semi-structured interview protocol that the Institution Review Board (IRB) approved was utilized. All study participants shared insights and reflected on their "sense of belonging" as construction education students at a predominantly white university. The female participants, in particular, explored how being a woman with limited construction work experience created a barrier to their sense of belonging. "Sources of support" like participating in a learning community, counterspaces, professor support, group involvement, and volunteer opportunities helped to boost individual morale and sense of belonging.
Abstract. Highest amount of Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes are produced during the demolition phase of building lifecycle stages, which results in significant loss of natural resources, and exhibits adverse environmental impact globally. BIM processes and Lean principles have been used in improving demolition waste management on the individual aspect basis; however, the synergies of both these systems are not fully explored especially during demolition stage. This paper focuses on alignment of integrated Lean-BIM processes to optimize the waste reduction aspect during project demolition phase. The method involves (1) developing 3D BIM demolition model using a selected real-time demolition project as a case study, and (2) establishing a client’s need-based model of salvaged elements, using the developed 3D BIM model, for deciding the destination of demolished material as a Lean Construction approach. This approach can be expected to improve the rate of reuse and recycle of demolished material, that can ultimately lead to saving natural resources by sending less material to landfill/disposal sites.
Abstract. This research studied contract change orders at five U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) Districts over the past twenty-one years with a combined value of $3,689,742,841. These districts represent a broad spectrum of federal contracting across the entire United States and every type of construction contract from major military projects to minor repair work to national civil infrastructure. Of the 44,887 contract changes studied, 4,061 were identified as specifically related to the Mechanical and Plumbing trades. These changes were evaluated for magnitude, frequency and time extension. The Mechanical and Plumbing trades were selected because they are typically among the last major construction features prior to the completion date. Previous research estimates that change orders in the last 20% of a project timeline should be weighted 6 times more heavily than change orders in the first 20% (Hanna et al., 1999). The results indicate that Mechanical and Plumbing change orders do have a higher likelihood of extending the timeline of a project. It also showed that the dollar value impact was relatively low compared to other changes. Ultimately the database of contract changes generated during this research could provide a critical data source for future studies, particularly of federal construction contracting.
Abstract. Facility owners and managers rely on trusted asset data developed during projects in BIM for reducing risk in operations, strategic planning, design, construction, sustainability, and environmental responsiveness. The prime contractor is the party responsible for construction handover and for fulfilling the project owner’s requirements to deliver the building information model (BIM) and the asset data as set forth in the BIM Project Execution Plan (BEP). This research was approached with a broad perspective of the state-of-practice of BIM data use for Facilities Management (FM). Using a questionnaire sent to facility owners, managers and those in similar positions this study sought to identify why the project data handover from construction is vital to facilities management for operations and maintenance, and how the project data is collected and used for facilities management purposes. The results discussed here were limited to Construction Deliverables and Facilities Management. The research found that following a prescribed process for understanding O&M needs, as defined in the UK for some years, could help. Understanding the issues identified in this paper is a great starting point for construction handover. Reflections from this study should be applicable for O&M stages in both the USA and UK respectively.
Abstract. Construction projects are inherently associated with various risks that can increase the project costs. Identifying and analyzing such risks are essential to successfully managing construction budgets at state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). While many state DOTs have developed and/or adopted risk assessments methodologies and tools, Tennessee DOT (TDOT) lacks a comprehensive methodology and tool to analyze construction project risks. This study reviewed state DOT practices of analyzing various risks associated with large infrastructure construction projects. The comparison of risk assessment practices among state DOTs are summarized in three sections: a) risk management, b) major categories affecting project costs, and c) risk estimating tools and practices. The review finds that many state DOTs have similar practices of analyzing project risks and have developed spreadsheet-based tools to automate such analysis. While some risk analysis tools are used primarily for qualitative risk analysis, other tools are developed for qualitative and quantitative risk analysis. Such tools with qualitative and quantitative risk analysis can be used to quantify contingencies for various projects for budgeting purposes.
Abstract. The use of emerging technologies such as Wearable Robots (WRs) or exoskeletons has gained considerable attention in the construction industry in recent times. WRs or exoskeletons augment workers' physical capacity when performing physically demanding tasks. While there is growing interest in exoskeletons, existing literature suggests that some workers oppose WR use on job sites. This resistance is largely driven by second-hand information gathered through multiple channels, and not based on actual use. Therefore, it is important to assess how hands-on experience (trialability) influences the end-user perception of the use of exoskeletons. To fill this gap, the researcher utilized a mixed-method approach consisting of a structured literature review, controlled experiment, and surveys (pre-post experiment surveys). Statistical analyses revealed that in most cases, trialability had a positive influence on technology acceptance constructs assessed (including “Behavioral Intention to Use”), confirming the important role of hands-on experience in exoskeleton integration research and practice.
Abstract. According to research studies, Hispanic and Spanish speaking labors make up about 30% of the fatalities in the construction industry. Experts concur that the language barrier between Spanish- speaking workers and English-speaking supervisors is the primary reason for these high rates. Construction Spanish courses need to be taught in construction management departments in colleges throughout the US in order to reduce the language/communication gap between labors and future construction managers or superintendents. This study examines the construction Spanish and Hispanic safety culture courses that are taught in construction programs in the US. It was determined that only a few construction Spanish courses are taught. There is a need to teach students construction Spanish language and Hispanic safety culture in order to reduce the rate of the Hispanic workforce fatalities and injuries.
Abstract. Several studies have investigated the benefits of applying emerging technologies in the construction industry, but information about how these technologies can be successfully implemented in construction, particularly for safety management is limited. Different theories and frameworks have been posited and successfully implemented in different industries. However, a detailed exploration of the utility of these frameworks within the context of construction safety management is missing. The main purpose of this research is to synthesize available information on different applicable theoretical models for evaluating and predicting the diffusion of safety technologies in construction. Using an integrated review process, the authors evaluated 12 promising theories and models that are rarely utilized in construction research. Potential applications, strengths, and limitations are discussed herein. The results of the review are used to propose multiple theoretical models that could be utilized to better understand and predict the diffusion of safety technologies in the construction industry. This study reveals the key factors, within multiple frameworks, that affect the adoption, adaptation, and infusion of technologies for safety management in construction. Practitioners and researchers could utilize information from this study to evaluate the diffusion of specific technologies within an organization and the construction industry.
Abstract. The increased environmental concerns in recent decades have resulted in examining waste emissions, resource utilization, and resource depletion. A holistic environmental assessment should consider all these factors. Researchers, policymakers, and companies are paying more attention to environmental management. As a result, organizations are developing their environmental practices to enhance environmental management throughout the building life cycle. Contemporary life cycle assessment (LCA) stands out as a reliable and comprehensive method that effectively communicates such benefits to stakeholders and offers them more leverage. LCA is increasingly being used to assess how construction processes affect the environment and minimize these impacts. There is a need for research on the use of LCA tools in buildings, which is a key point and a solution to facilitate environmental management practices and transform the construction industry. Based on a literature review, the research studies LCA tools for quantifying buildings' environmental impact and provides a decision support framework for choosing LCA tools. The paper aims to analyze the current uses of LCA in construction, present LCA tools, compare applied tools in buildings, and explore three commonly used LCA tools for building studies. Moreover, this research explores that managing the database is one of the most significant issues with current LCA tools. It suggests that building information modeling (BIM) and LCA integration is an approach that might facilitate and simplify data management for LCA analysis throughout all building life cycles. This study's results will assist project stakeholders in choosing the appropriate tools and selecting the most environmentally friendly products at different building life cycle stages (i.e., design, construction, and maintenance) for the project's success.
Abstract. Similar to other injury-prone industries, the construction sector experiences an elevated number of accidents regularly. These inauspicious occurrences mostly lead to unwanted variability in project performance indicators and exert negative impacts on the victims, their families, and society. The major causes of accidents in the construction industry have often been linked to human factors, particularly the lack of adequate safety and health education in tertiary institutions. This study evaluates safety and health education in the curricula of construction-related programs in Nigeria. First, accredited construction-related programs in Nigerian universities were identified after which the curricula of 14 selected programs were examined to determine safety and health education provisions. Thereafter, a survey was designed and administered to faculty from six universities (one per geopolitical zones) to investigate their perception of the barriers and drivers to the inclusion of safety and health education in the curricula of construction-related programs. Findings from the study revealed the existing lack of construction safety and health education in the curricula and the main barriers/drivers impacting inclusion in Nigerian construction programs. These findings could be used to develop a framework and strategies for integrating construction safety and health education into the curricula of construction-related programs in Nigeria.
Abstract. Within dynamic and complex construction environments, fatal and non-fatal occupational records are alarming all over the world. Fatigue among workers is one of the key causes which affects their ability to operate safely. To improve safety management, the prevalence of fatigue among workers must be investigated to implement effective interventions for fatigue mitigation. However, the prevalence of fatigue among construction workers in the United States has not been studied. Therefore, this research explores this gap by recruiting 120 workers in the U.S. To achieve the research goals, the worker's level of fatigue (i.e., acute, chronic, and inteshift recovery) was measured using a validated OFER scale. Data analysis revealed (1) the prevalence of fatigue among construction workers is alarming (OFER Score=34.23), that acute fatigue, among all aspects of it, has the most profound impact on workers, and (2) there are no statistical correlations between measured fatigue levels and age and experience of construction workers. The findings of this study will be beneficial to practitioners and researchers in construction to implement effective safety measures to prevent accidents in workplaces.