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Ponding and Blisters – Study of SPF roofs

10 pagesPublished: December 11, 2023


Multiple roofing systems in the construction industry and installing high-quality roofing products are vital for efficient building operations. Inadequacies in design, materials, installation workmanship or maintenance can result in defects and surface anomalies in the roofing membrane- like blisters, open seams, and holes. The current study investigates if there is a relationship between roof distress features - blisters and ponding and the low slope sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) roofs, especially when roofs do not conform to the minimum slope of 1/4 inch. The researchers' team conducted a quality inspection survey for the SPF roofs (#96 non-granular and #1068 granular aggregate roofs). The visual observations populated data to develop an account of the percentage of blisters and surface defects such as ponding, penetrations, delamination, and bird pecks of the SPF roofs. Statistical analyses utilizing Pearson correlation, t-test, and Chi-Square test evaluated the correlation between ponding and blisters to confirm if non-conforming roof slopes lead to defects and surface anomalies. As a result, the study established that the roof's slope significantly influenced the ponding area of granular and non-granular aggregate SPF roofs. Ponding and blisters are likely to exist in non-granular while ponding in granular roofs.

Keyphrases: blisters, granular aggregate roof, non-granular aggregate roof, ponding, SPF roof

In: Tom Leathem, Wesley Collins and Anthony J. Perrenoud (editors). Proceedings of 59th Annual Associated Schools of Construction International Conference, vol 4, pages 704--713

BibTeX entry
  author    = {Vivek Sharma and Dhaval Gajjar and Shima Clark and Stuti Garg and Jake Smithwick and Vineet Dharmapalan},
  title     = {Ponding and Blisters -- Study of SPF roofs},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of 59th Annual Associated Schools of Construction International Conference},
  editor    = {Tom Leathem and Wes Collins and Anthony Perrenoud},
  series    = {EPiC Series in Built Environment},
  volume    = {4},
  pages     = {704--713},
  year      = {2023},
  publisher = {EasyChair},
  bibsource = {EasyChair,},
  issn      = {2632-881X},
  url       = {},
  doi       = {10.29007/dchv}}
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