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Developing countries’ continuance usage of e-services after COVID-19 in the 4IR era

11 pagesPublished: November 24, 2022


The Corona virus (Covid-19) pandemic highlighted the need for many enterprises to digitize their services leading to a good number of the world’s population moving into the online realm to minimize the virus spread. However the use of e-services has been slow in many developing countries as compared to the developed nations hence it is not clear whether this e-services usage will continue after the Covid-19 pandemic. This study sought to develop a model for the unprecedented and unforeseen growth continuance usage of e-services after the Covid-19 pandemic coupled with the exponential growth of 4IR. Data for the study was collected from the South African revenue services (SARs) customers that use e-filling and was analyzed quantitatively. The model was validated by the use of confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Results indicated that perceived usefulness and exerted pressure are good antecedents of continuance usage of e-services. More so, the 4IR path indicated that the future will have to embrace telecommuting that will require upskilling therefore, governments and businesses should consider extending benefits and protections to independent workers and to all other employees needing to develop their skills and knowledge mid-career. This study contributes theoretically to the literature of continuance usage of technology, e- services and in the explanation of the shift from simple digitization to innovative use of combined technologies that are changing the way organization do their businesses. The study recommends that, future research should include the analysis of moderating factors as such will assist in equipping skills and expertise to citizens needed for e-services effective usage. More still, future research should also consider the triangulation of methods to have a more understanding of users perception towards mandatory usage of e-services.

Keyphrases: Continuance usage of technology, Digital Transformation, E-services usage, Fourth Industrial Revolution, Technology use during COVID-19 era

In: Hossana Twinomurinzi, Nkosikhona Msweli and Tendani Mawela (editors). Proceedings of NEMISA Summit and Colloquium 2022: The Future of Work and Digital Skills, vol 4, pages 1--11

BibTeX entry
  author    = {Billy Mathias Kalema},
  title     = {Developing countries' continuance usage of e-services after COVID-19 in the 4IR era},
  booktitle = {Proceedings of NEMISA Summit and Colloquium 2022: The Future of Work and Digital Skills},
  editor    = {Hossana Twinomurinzi and Nkosikhona Msweli and Tendani Mawela},
  series    = {EPiC Series in Education Science},
  volume    = {4},
  pages     = {1--11},
  year      = {2022},
  publisher = {EasyChair},
  bibsource = {EasyChair,},
  issn      = {2516-2306},
  url       = {},
  doi       = {10.29007/2cdm}}
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